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Author (up) Arendt, J.; Middleton, B.
Title Human seasonal and circadian studies in Antarctica (Halley, 75 degrees S) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol
Volume 258 Issue Pages 250-258
Keywords Human Activities; Acclimatization/*physiology; Actigraphy; Adult; Antarctic Regions; Behavior/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Darkness; Female; Heart Rate/physiology; Humans; Libido; Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Photoperiod; *Seasons; Sleep/physiology; Young Adult; *Antarctica; *Circadian; *Light; *Melatonin; *Seasonal
Abstract Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75 degrees S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer. Light of sufficient intensity and spectral composition serves to suppress production of melatonin and to set the circadian timing and the duration of the rhythm. In humans early observations suggested that bright (>2000 lux) white light was needed to suppress melatonin completely. Shortly thereafter winter depression (Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD) was described, and its successful treatment by an artificial summer photoperiod of bright white light, sufficient to shorten melatonin production. At Halley dim artificial light intensity during winter was measured, until 2003, at a maximum of approximately 500 lux in winter. Thus a strong seasonal and circadian time cue was absent. It seemed likely that winter depression would be common in the extended period of winter darkness and could be treated with an artificial summer photoperiod. These observations, and predictions, inspired a long series of studies regarding human seasonal and circadian status, and the effects of light treatment, in a small overwintering, isolated community, living in the same conditions for many months at Halley. We found little evidence of SAD, or change in duration of melatonin production with season. However the timing of the melatonin rhythm itself, and/or that of its metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), was used as a primary marker of seasonal, circadian and treatment changes. A substantial phase delay of melatonin in winter was advanced to summer phase by a two pulse 'skeleton' bright white light treatment. Subsequently a single morning pulse of bright white light was effective with regard to circadian phase and improved daytime performance. The circadian delay evidenced by melatonin was accompanied by delayed sleep (logs and actigraphy): poor sleep is a common complaint in Polar regions. Appropriate extra artificial light, both standard white, and blue enriched, present throughout the day, effectively countered delay in sleep timing and the aMT6s rhythm. The most important factor appeared to be the maximum light experienced. Another manifestation of the winter was a decline in self-rated libido (men only on base at this time). Women on the base showed lower aspects of physical and mental health compared to men. Free-running rhythms were seen in some subjects following night shift, but were rarely found at other times, probably because this base has strongly scheduled activity and leisure time. Complete circadian adaptation during a week of night shift, also seen in a similar situation on North Sea oil rigs, led to problems readapting back to day shift in winter, compared to summer. Here again timed light treatment was used to address the problem. Sleep, alertness and waking performance are critically dependent on optimum circadian phase. Circadian desynchrony is associated with increased risk of major disease in shift workers. These studies provide some groundwork for countering/avoiding circadian desynchrony in rather extreme conditions.
Address Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Electronic address: b.middleton@surrey.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28526480 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2248
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Author (up) Cope, K.L.; Schook, M.W.; Benard, M.F.
Title Exposure to artificial light at night during the larval stage has delayed effects on juvenile corticosterone concentration in American toads, Anaxyrus americanus Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol
Volume in press Issue Pages 113508
Keywords Animals; amphibian; anthropogenic light; carry-over effects; environmental stressor; glucocorticoid; predation
Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an environmental stressor that can disrupt individual physiology and ecological interactions. Hormones such as corticosterone are often responsible for mediating an organism's response to environmental stressors. We investigated whether ALAN was associated with a corticosterone response and whether it exacerbated the effects of another common stressor, predation. We tested for consumptive, non-consumptive, and physiological effects of ALAN and predator presence (dragonfly larvae) on a widespread amphibian, the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus). We found predators had consumptive (decreased survival) and non-consumptive (decreased growth) effects on larval toads. ALAN did not affect larval toads nor did it interact with the predator treatment to increase larval toad predation. Despite the consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators, neither predators nor ALAN affected corticosterone concentration in the larval and metamorph life-stages. In contrast to studies in other organisms, we did not find any evidence that suggested ALAN alters predator-prey interactions between dragonfly larvae and toads. However, there was an inverse relationship between corticosterone and survival that was exacerbated by exposure to ALAN when predators were absent. Additionally, larval-stage exposure to ALAN increased corticosterone concentration in juvenile toads. Our results suggest the physiological effects of ALAN may not be demonstrated until later life-stages.
Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44016, USA. Electronic address: mfb38@case.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32442544 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2931
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Author (up) Ikeno, T.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Dim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol
Volume 197 Issue Pages 56-64
Keywords 2,4-dinitro-1-flourobenzene; Dnfb; Dth; Eya3; Eyes absent 3; GnIH; GnRH; Immune function; Ld; Lps; Light pollution; Pt; Pelage; Per1; Period1; Photoperiodism; Rfrp; RFamide-related peptide; Scn; Sd; Seasonality; Tsh; TSH receptor; Tshr; dLAN; delayed-type hypersensitivity; dim light at night; gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone; gonadotropin-releasing hormone; lipopolysaccharide; long days; pars tuberalis; short days; suprachiasmatic nuclei; thyroid-stimulating hormone
Abstract Photoperiodic regulation of physiology, morphology, and behavior is crucial for many animals to survive seasonally variable conditions unfavorable for reproduction and survival. The photoperiodic response in mammals is mediated by nocturnal secretion of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. However, artificial light at night caused by recent urbanization may disrupt the circadian clock, as well as the photoperiodic response by blunting melatonin secretion. Here we examined the effect of dim light at night (dLAN) (5lux of light during the dark phase) on locomotor activity rhythms and short-day regulation of reproduction, body mass, pelage properties, and immune responses of male Siberian hamsters. Short-day animals reduced gonadal and body mass, decreased spermatid nuclei and sperm numbers, molted to a whiter pelage, and increased pelage density compared to long-day animals. However, animals that experienced short days with dLAN did not show these short-day responses. Moreover, short-day specific immune responses were altered in dLAN conditions. The nocturnal activity pattern was blunted in dLAN hamsters, consistent with the observation that dLAN changed expression of the circadian clock gene, Period1. In addition, we demonstrated that expression levels of genes implicated in the photoperiodic response, Mel-1a melatonin receptor, Eyes absent 3, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, were higher in dLAN animals than those in short-day animals. These results suggest that dLAN disturbs the circadian clock function and affects the molecular mechanisms of the photoperiodic response.
Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: randy.nelson@osumc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24362257 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 82
Permanent link to this record