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Author (down) Hurley, S.; Nelson, D.O.; Garcia, E.; Gunier, R.; Hertz, A.; Reynolds, P.
Title A cross-sectional analysis of light at night, neighborhood sociodemographics and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations: implications for the conduct of health studies Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 39
Keywords circadian disruption; 6-sulftoxymelatonin; melatonin; aMT6s, DMSP; light at night
Abstract BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that circadian disruption, mediated by alterations in melatonin levels, may play an etiologic role in a wide variety of diseases. The degree to which light-at-night (LAN) and other factors can alter melatonin levels is not well-documented. Our primary objective was to evaluate the degree to which estimates of outdoor environmental LAN predict 6-sulftoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the primary urinary metabolite of melatonin. We also evaluated other potential behavioral, sociodemographic, and anthropomorphic predictors of aMT6s. METHODS: Study participants consisted of 303 members of the California Teachers Study who provided a 24-hour urine specimen and completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2000. Urinary aMT6s was measured using the Buhlmann ELISA. Outdoor LAN levels were estimated from satellite imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System and assigned to study participants' geocoded residential address. Information on other potential predictors of aMT6s was derived from self-administered surveys. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was based on U.S. Census block group data. RESULTS: Lower aMT6s levels were significantly associated with older age, shorter nights, and residential locations in lower SES neighborhoods. Outdoor sources of LAN estimated using low-dynamic range DMSP data had insufficient variability across urban neighborhoods to evaluate. While high-dynamic range DMSP offered much better variability, it was not significantly associated with urinary aMT6s. CONCLUSIONS: Future health studies should utilize the high-dynamic range DMSP data and should consider other potential sources of circadian disruption associated with living in lower SES neighborhoods.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24127816; PMCID:PMC3766028 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 142
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Author (down) Ebener, S.; Murray, C.; Tandon, A.; Elvidge, C.C.
Title From wealth to health: modelling the distribution of income per capita at the sub-national level using night-time light imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 5
Keywords poverty; remote sensing; light pollution
Abstract BACKGROUND: Sub-national figures providing information about the wealth of the population are useful in defining the spatial distribution of both economic activity and poverty within any given country. Furthermore, since several health indicators such as life expectancy are highly correlated with household welfare, sub-national figures allow for the estimation of the distribution of these health indicators within countries when direct measurement is difficult.We have developed methods that utilize spatially distributed information, including night-time light imagery and population to model the distribution of income per capita, as a proxy for wealth, at the country and sub-national level to support the estimation of the distribution of correlated health indicators. RESULTS: A first set of analysis are performed in order to propose a new global model for the prediction of income per capita at the country level. A second set of analysis is then confirming the possibility to transfer the country level approach to the sub-national level on a country by country basis before underlining the difficulties to create a global or regional models for the extrapolation of sub-national figures when no country data set exists. CONCLUSIONS: The methods described provide promising results for the extrapolation of national and sub-national income per capita figures. These results are then discussed in order to evaluate if the proposed methods could not represent an alternative approach for the generation of consistent country specific and/or global poverty maps disaggregated to some sub-national level.
Address Evidence and Information for Policy, World Health Organization, Av, Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. ebeners@who.int
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15705196; PMCID:PMC549533 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 125
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Author (down) Bauer, S.E.; Wagner, S.E.; Burch, J.; Bayakly, R.; Vena, J.E.
Title A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr
Volume 12 Issue Pages 23
Keywords Human Health; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Georgia/epidemiology; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Registries; Risk Factors
Abstract BACKGROUND: Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. METHODS: Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000-2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992-2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0-20 watts per sterradian cm(2)), medium (21-41 watts per sterradian cm(2)), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm(2)). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15-50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be fundamental biological links between exposure to artificial LAN and increased BC incidence, although additional research using exposure metrics at the individual level is required to confirm or refute these findings.
Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. secbauer@ufl.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23594790; PMCID:PMC3651306 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 718
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