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Author (up) Gaston, K.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Gaston, S.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human alteration of natural light cycles: causes and ecological consequences Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume 176 Issue 4 Pages 917-931  
  Keywords Day; Diurnal; Night; Nocturnal; Skyglow; review; ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is profoundly altering natural light cycles, particularly as perceived by many organisms, over extensive areas of the globe. This alteration comprises the introduction of light at night at places and times at which it has not previously occurred, and with different spectral signatures. Given the long geological periods for which light cycles have previously been consistent, this constitutes a novel environmental pressure, and one for which there is evidence for biological effects that span from molecular to community level. Here we provide a synthesis of understanding of the form and extent of this alteration, some of the key consequences for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, interactions and synergies with other anthropogenic pressures on the environment, major uncertainties, and future prospects and management options. This constitutes a compelling example of the need for a thoroughly interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing the impact of one particular anthropogenic pressure. The former requires insights that span molecular biology to ecosystem ecology, and the latter contributions of biologists, policy makers and engineers.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK, k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25239105 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 371  
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Author (up) Gerrish, G.A.; Morin, J.G.; Rivers, T.J.; Patrawala, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Darkness as an ecological resource: the role of light in partitioning the nocturnal niche Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume 160 Issue 3 Pages 525-536  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Belize; Crustacea/*physiology; *Darkness; *Ecosystem; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Linear Models; Motor Activity/*physiology; Photoperiod; Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology; Water Movements  
  Abstract Nocturnal behaviors that vary as a function of light intensity, either from the setting sun or the moon, are typically labeled as circadian or circalunar. Both of these terms refer to endogenous time-dependent behaviors. In contrast, the nightly reproductive and feeding behaviors of Vargula annecohenae, a bioluminescent ostracod (Arthropoda: Crustacea) fluctuate in response to light intensity, an exogenous factor that is not strictly time-dependent. We measured adult and juvenile activity of V. annecohenae throughout lunar cycles in January/February and June 2003. Overnight and nightly measurements of foraging and reproductive behavior of adult V. annecohenae indicated that activity was greatest when a critical “dark threshold” was reached and that the dark threshold for adult V. annecohenae is met when less than a third of the moon is visible or at the intensity of light 2-3 min before the start of nautical twilight when no moon is illuminated. Juvenile V. annecohenae were also nocturnally active but demonstrated little or no response to lunar illumination, remaining active even during brightly moonlit periods. In addition to light level, water velocity also influenced the behaviors of V. annecohenae, with fewer juveniles and adults actively foraging on nights when water velocity was high (>25 cm/s). Our data demonstrate that the strongest environmental factor influencing adult feeding and reproductive behaviors of V. annecohenae is the availability of time when illumination is below the critical dark threshold. This dependence on darkness for successful growth and reproduction allows us to classify darkness as a resource, in the same way that the term has been applied to time, space and temperature.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. ggerrish@nd.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19330516 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 16  
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