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Author Aubé, M.
Title Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of Starlight 2007 conference. La Palma, Spain. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Few attempts have been made to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) behaviour

during the night. One such method uses spectrally calibrated stars as reference targets

but the available number of stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where

artificial lighting hide most of these stars. In our research we attempt to provide an

alternate method one which exploits the artificial sky glow generated by light pollution.

To achieve that goal, we designed a new methodology which links a 3D light

pollution model with in situ light pollution spectral measurements obtained with our

detector called Spectrometer for aerosol night detection (SAND). The basic idea was to

adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit the measured artificial sky brightness.

This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting

angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and

in topography along with a detailed definition of the vertical atmospheric profile. This

model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering

as well as aerosol absorption. A correction for sub grid obstacles is also included.

These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models.

Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of

particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present model

and detector features and some of the first results derived from ILLUMINA model. We

will also present our web based spatio-temporal Sky spectral luminance measurements

database project.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 552
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Author Aubé, M.; Franchomme-Fossé, L.; Robert-Staehler, P.; Houle, V.
Title Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of SPIE 2005 -- Volume 5890, San Diego, California, USA. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5890 Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Skyglow; aerosol optical depth;  remote sensing; light pollution; artificial skyglow
Abstract Tracking the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is of particular importance in monitoring aerosol contributions to global radiative forcing. Until now, the two standard techniques used for retrieving AOD were; (i) sun photometry, and (ii) satellite based approaches, such as based DDV (Dense Dark Vegetation) inversion algorithms. These methods are only available for use during daylight time since they are based on direct or indirect observation of sunlight. Few attempts have been made to measure AOD behaviour at night. One such method uses spectrally ­ calibrated stars as reference targets but the number of available stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where artificial lighting hides most  of these stars. In this research, we  attempt  to provide an alternate method, one  which exploits artificial sky glow or light pollution. This methodology links a 3D light pollution model with in situ light pollution measurements. The basic idea is to adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit measured light pollution. This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and in topography. This model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering, as well as aerosol absorption. These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models. Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present a first sensitive study applied to the ILLUMINA model.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 554
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Author Aubé, M.; Fortin, N.; Turcotte, S.; García, B.; Mancilla, A.; Maya, J.
Title Evaluation of the Sky Brightness at Two Argentinian Astronomical Sites Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Volume Issue (up) Pages 000-000
Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; astronomical observatories; sky brightness; site selection; LEO ++; El Leoncito; Kitt Peak; Mont-Mégantic; Argentina
Abstract Light pollution is a growing concern at many levels, especially for the astronomical community. Indeed, not only does artificial lighting veil celestial objects, it disturbs the measurement of many atmospheric phenomena. The sky brightness is one of the most relevant parameters for astronomical site selection. Our goal is to evaluate the sky brightness of two Argentinian observation sites: LEO ++ and El Leoncito. Both sites were preselected to host the Cherenkov Telescope Array. This project consists of an arrangement of many telescopes that can measure high-energy gamma ray emissions via their Cherenkov radiation produced when entering the earth’s atmosphere. In this paper, we describe the measurement methods used to determine whether those sites are valuable or not. We compared our results with the sky radiance of different renowned astronomical sites (Kitt Peak, Arizona, and Mont-Mégantic, Québec, Canada). Among our results, we found that LEO ++ is a good site, however the presence of a low layer of local aerosol can introduce uncertainties in the measurements. Consequently, El Leoncito would be a better option for such an installation. This latter site shows very low sky brightness levels, which are optimal for low light detection.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1071
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Author Aubé, M.; Roby, J.
Title Sky brightness levels before and after the creation of the first International Dark Sky Reserve, Mont-Mégantic Observatory, Québec, Canada Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume 139 Issue (up) Pages 52-63
Keywords Skyglow; measurements; metrology; Mont-Mégantic; Quebec; Canada; modelling; radiative transfer; sky quality; sky brightness
Abstract In 2007, the area around the Mont-Mégantic Observatory (MMO) was officially certified by the International Dark-Sky Association and the Royal Astronomy Association of Canada as the first International Dark Sky Reserve (IDSR). In order to be able to investigate the impact of Artificial Light at Night on night sky brightness before and after the establishment of the IDSR, we used a heterogeneous artificial sky brightness model including an implicit calculation of 2nd order scattering (ILLUMINA) developed by Martin Aubé's group. This model generates three kinds of outputs: the sky radiance at the given site, observing angle and wavelength and the corresponding contribution and sensitivity maps. The maps allow for the identification of the origin of the sky radiance according to each part of the surrounding territory. For summer clear sky conditions, the results show that replacing light fixtures within a 25 km radius around the MMO with cut-off High Pressure Sodium devices and reducing the total installed radiant power to ~40% of its initial level are very efficient ways of reducing artificial sky brightness. The artificial sky brightness reduction at zenith observed after the establishment of the IDSR was ~50% in the 546 nm mercury spectral line, while the reduction obtained in the 569 nm sodium line was ~30%. A large part of that reduction can be associated to the reduction in radiant power. The contribution and sensitivity maps highlight critical zones where any changes in the lighting infrastructure have the most important impact on sky brightness at the MMO. Contribution and sensitivity maps have been used to analyze the detailed origin of sky brightness reduction. The results of this study are intended to support authorities in the management of their lighting infrastructure with the goal of reducing sky brightness. The results have been shared with MMO officials and are being used as a tool to improve sky quality at the observatory.
Address Tel.: +1 819 564 6350x4146.
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ScienceDirect Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1099
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Author Aubé, M.
Title Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue (up) Pages 20140117
Keywords Skyglow; artificial light at night; light pollution; radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; scattering; methods; numerical; sensitivity analysis
Abstract Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005: Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane.
Address Département de physique, Cégep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1115
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.
Title The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue (up) Pages 11-23
Keywords Skyglow; Madrid; Spain; Europe; artificial light at night; light pollution; clouds; amplification
Abstract Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.
Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475 rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Canada J1E 4K1; aubema(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1351
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Editorial: Special issue on remote sensing of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue (up) Pages 1
Keywords Commentary
Abstract
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1441
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Author Hänel, A.; Posch, T.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Duriscoe, D.; Jechow, A.; Kollath, Z.; Lolkema, D.E.; Moore, C.; Schmidt, N.; Spoelstra, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 205 Issue (up) Pages 278-290
Keywords skyglow
Abstract Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earthâ??s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the â??Sky Quality Meterâ? continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1731
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Author Aubé, M.; Simoneau, A.
Title New features to the night sky radiance model illumina: Hyperspectral support, improved obstacles and cloud reflection Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 211 Issue (up) Pages 25-34
Keywords
Abstract Illumina is one of the most physically detailed artificial night sky brightness model to date. It has been in continuous development since 2005 [1]. In 2016–17, many improvements were made to the Illumina code including an overhead cloud scheme, an improved blocking scheme for subgrid obstacles (trees and buildings), and most importantly, a full hyperspectral modeling approach. Code optimization resulted in significant reduction in execution time enabling users to run the model on standard personal computers for some applications.

After describing the new schemes introduced in the model, we give some examples of applications for a peri-urban and a rural site both located inside the International Dark Sky reserve of Mont-Mégantic (QC, Canada).
Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475, rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Québec J1E 4K1, Canada; martin.aube(at)cegepsherbrooke.qc.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1818
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Author Linares, H.; Masana, E.; Ribas, S.J.; Garcia - Gil, M.; Figueras, F.; Aubé, M.
Title Modelling the night sky brightness and light pollution sources of Montsec protected area Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 217 Issue (up) Pages 178-188
Keywords skyglow
Abstract We proceeded to the modelling of the night sky brightness of Montsec area (north-east of Spain), an astronomical protected area certified as a Starlight Reserve. We have used the hyperspectral version of ILLUMINA, an artificial sky brightness model. Ground based measurements for Montsec and other areas of Catalonia 0015 ; 0016, including both photometric and spectroscopic data, has been used to fit and evaluate the input parameters of the model. In this first modelling attempt, Lleida, the biggest city in the area, has been considered as the unique source of light pollution. In 2014 there was an update of the lighting infrastructure in Lleida. A detailed comparison of the sky brightness before and after the change is shown in order to measure the effects that different kind of lamps can produce. This information could be used to plan for future updates and improvements of the lighting systems in the area.
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1923
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