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Author Kinzey, B.R.; Perrin, T.E.; Miller, N.J.; Kocifaj, M.; Aubé, M.; Lamphar, H.A.
Title (up) An investigation of LED street lighting's impact on sky glow Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume PNNL-26411 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; Lighting
Abstract A significant amount of public attention has recently focused on perceived impacts of converting street lighting from incumbent lamp-based products to LED technology. Much of this attention pertains to the higher content of short wavelength light (commonly referred to as “blue light”) of LEDs and its attendant influences on sky glow (a brightening of the night sky that can interfere with astronomical observation and may be associated with a host of other issues). The complexity of this topic leads to common misunderstandings and misperceptions among the public, and for this reason the U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program embarked on a study of sky glow using a well-established astronomical model to investigate some of the primary factors influencing sky glow. This report details the results of the investigation and attempts to present those results in terms accessible to the general lighting community. The report also strives to put the results into a larger context, and help educate interested readers on various topics relevant to the issues being discussed.
Address
Corporate Author Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2014
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Author Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Aubé, M.; Zamorano, J.; Cardiel, N.; Tapia, C.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title (up) Colour remote sensing of the impact of artificial light at night (I): The potential of the International Space Station and other DSLR-based platforms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 224 Issue Pages 92-103
Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation
Abstract Sensors on remote sensing satellites have provided useful tools for evaluation of the environmental impacts of nighttime artificial light pollution. However, due to their panchromatic nature, the data available from these sensors (VIIRS/DNB and DMSP/OLS) has a limited capacity accurately to assess this impact. Moreover, in some cases, recorded variations can be misleading. Until new satellite platforms and sensors are available, only nighttime images taken with DSLR cameras from the International Space Station (ISS), airplanes, balloons or other such platforms can provide the required information. Here we describe a theoretical approach using colour-colour diagrams to analyse images taken by astronauts on the ISS to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the spectrum of artificial lighting emissions. We then evaluate how this information can be used to determine effects on some key environmental indices: photopic vision, the Melatonin Suppression Index, the Star Light Index, the Induced Photosynthesis Index, production of NO2-NO radicals, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions, and Correlated Colour Temperature. Finally, we use the city of Milan as a worked example of the approach.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2189
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.
Title (up) Editorial: Special issue on remote sensing of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue Pages 1
Keywords Commentary
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1441
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Author Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Bará, S.; Aubé, M.; Cardiel, N.; Tapia, C.E.; Zamorano, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title (up) Evaluating Human Photoreceptoral Inputs from Night-Time Lights Using RGB Imaging Photometry Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging
Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 49
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Instrumentation
Abstract Night-time lights interact with human physiology through different pathways starting at the retinal layers of the eye; from the signals provided by the rods; the S-, L- and M-cones; and the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC). These individual photic channels combine in complex ways to modulate important physiological processes, among them the daily entrainment of the neural master oscillator that regulates circadian rhythms. Evaluating the relative excitation of each type of photoreceptor generally requires full knowledge of the spectral power distribution of the incoming light, information that is not easily available in many practical applications. One such instance is wide area sensing of public outdoor lighting; present-day radiometers onboard Earth-orbiting platforms with sufficient nighttime sensitivity are generally panchromatic and lack the required spectral discrimination capacity. In this paper, we show that RGB imagery acquired with off-the-shelf digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) can be a useful tool to evaluate, with reasonable accuracy and high angular resolution, the photoreceptoral inputs associated with a wide range of lamp technologies. The method is based on linear regressions of these inputs against optimum combinations of the associated R, G, and B signals, built for a large set of artificial light sources by means of synthetic photometry. Given the widespread use of RGB imaging devices, this approach is expected to facilitate the monitoring of the physiological effects of light pollution, from ground and space alike, using standard imaging technology.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2294
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Author Aubé, M.; Roby, J.; Kocifaj, M.
Title (up) Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 7 Pages e67798
Keywords Humans; *Light; Lighting/methods; Melatonin/*metabolism; Photosynthesis/*radiation effects; Plant Development/radiation effects; blue light; circadian disruption
Abstract Artificial light at night can be harmful to the environment, and interferes with fauna and flora, star visibility, and human health. To estimate the relative impact of a lighting device, its radiant power, angular photometry and detailed spectral power distribution have to be considered. In this paper we focus on the spectral power distribution. While specific spectral characteristics can be considered harmful during the night, they can be considered advantageous during the day. As an example, while blue-rich Metal Halide lamps can be problematic for human health, star visibility and vegetation photosynthesis during the night, they can be highly appropriate during the day for plant growth and light therapy. In this paper we propose three new indices to characterize lamp spectra. These indices have been designed to allow a quick estimation of the potential impact of a lamp spectrum on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility. We used these new indices to compare various lighting technologies objectively. We also considered the transformation of such indices according to the propagation of light into the atmosphere as a function of distance to the observer. Among other results, we found that low pressure sodium, phosphor-converted amber light emitting diodes (LED) and LED 2700 K lamps filtered with the new Ledtech's Equilib filter showed a lower or equivalent potential impact on melatonin suppression and star visibility in comparison to high pressure sodium lamps. Low pressure sodium, LED 5000 K-filtered and LED 2700 K-filtered lamps had a lower impact on photosynthesis than did high pressure sodium lamps. Finally, we propose these indices as new standards for the lighting industry to be used in characterizing their lighting technologies. We hope that their use will favor the design of new environmentally and health-friendly lighting technologies.
Address Departement de physique, Cegep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. martin.aube@cegepsherbrooke.qc.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23861808; PMCID:PMC3702543 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 282
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Author Garcia-Saenz, A.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Espinosa, A.; Valentin, A.; Aragonés, N.; Llorca, J.; Amiano, P.; Martín Sánchez, V.; Guevara, M.; Capelo, R.; Tardón, A.; Peiró-Perez, R.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J.; Roca-Barceló, A.; Pérez-Gómez, B.; Dierssen-Sotos, T.; Fernández-Villa, T.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Moreno, V.; García-Pérez, J.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Pollán, M.; Aubé, M.; Kogevinas, M.
Title (up) Evaluating the Association between Artificial Light-at-Night Exposure and Breast and Prostate Cancer Risk in Spain (MCC-Spain Study) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal
Volume 126 Issue 04 Pages
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Background: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers.

Objectives: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase–control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night.

Methods: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008–2013. Indoor ALAN information was obtained through questionnaires. Outdoor ALAN was analyzed using images from the International Space Station (ISS) available for Barcelona and Madrid for 2012–2013, including data of remotely sensed upward light intensity and blue light spectrum information for each geocoded longest residence of each MCC-Spain subject.

Results: Among Barcelona and Madrid participants with information on both indoor and outdoor ALAN, exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue light spectrum was associated with breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest tertile, OR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17] and prostate cancer (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03). In contrast, those exposed to the highest versus lowest intensity of outdoor ALAN were more likely to be controls than cases, particularly for prostate cancer. Compared with those who reported sleeping in total darkness, men who slept in “quite illuminated” bedrooms had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.04), whereas women had a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.51).

Conclusion: Both prostate and breast cancer were associated with high estimated exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue-enriched light spectrum.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1871
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Author Aubé, M.; Fortin, N.; Turcotte, S.; García, B.; Mancilla, A.; Maya, J.
Title (up) Evaluation of the Sky Brightness at Two Argentinian Astronomical Sites Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Volume Issue Pages 000-000
Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; astronomical observatories; sky brightness; site selection; LEO ++; El Leoncito; Kitt Peak; Mont-Mégantic; Argentina
Abstract Light pollution is a growing concern at many levels, especially for the astronomical community. Indeed, not only does artificial lighting veil celestial objects, it disturbs the measurement of many atmospheric phenomena. The sky brightness is one of the most relevant parameters for astronomical site selection. Our goal is to evaluate the sky brightness of two Argentinian observation sites: LEO ++ and El Leoncito. Both sites were preselected to host the Cherenkov Telescope Array. This project consists of an arrangement of many telescopes that can measure high-energy gamma ray emissions via their Cherenkov radiation produced when entering the earth’s atmosphere. In this paper, we describe the measurement methods used to determine whether those sites are valuable or not. We compared our results with the sky radiance of different renowned astronomical sites (Kitt Peak, Arizona, and Mont-Mégantic, Québec, Canada). Among our results, we found that LEO ++ is a good site, however the presence of a low layer of local aerosol can introduce uncertainties in the measurements. Consequently, El Leoncito would be a better option for such an installation. This latter site shows very low sky brightness levels, which are optimal for low light detection.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1071
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Author Aubé, M.
Title (up) Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of Starlight 2007 conference. La Palma, Spain. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Few attempts have been made to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) behaviour

during the night. One such method uses spectrally calibrated stars as reference targets

but the available number of stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where

artificial lighting hide most of these stars. In our research we attempt to provide an

alternate method one which exploits the artificial sky glow generated by light pollution.

To achieve that goal, we designed a new methodology which links a 3D light

pollution model with in situ light pollution spectral measurements obtained with our

detector called Spectrometer for aerosol night detection (SAND). The basic idea was to

adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit the measured artificial sky brightness.

This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting

angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and

in topography along with a detailed definition of the vertical atmospheric profile. This

model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering

as well as aerosol absorption. A correction for sub grid obstacles is also included.

These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models.

Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of

particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present model

and detector features and some of the first results derived from ILLUMINA model. We

will also present our web based spatio-temporal Sky spectral luminance measurements

database project.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 552
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Author Aubé, M.; Franchomme-Fossé, L.; Robert-Staehler, P.; Houle, V.
Title (up) Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of SPIE 2005 -- Volume 5890, San Diego, California, USA. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5890 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; aerosol optical depth;  remote sensing; light pollution; artificial skyglow
Abstract Tracking the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is of particular importance in monitoring aerosol contributions to global radiative forcing. Until now, the two standard techniques used for retrieving AOD were; (i) sun photometry, and (ii) satellite based approaches, such as based DDV (Dense Dark Vegetation) inversion algorithms. These methods are only available for use during daylight time since they are based on direct or indirect observation of sunlight. Few attempts have been made to measure AOD behaviour at night. One such method uses spectrally ­ calibrated stars as reference targets but the number of available stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where artificial lighting hides most  of these stars. In this research, we  attempt  to provide an alternate method, one  which exploits artificial sky glow or light pollution. This methodology links a 3D light pollution model with in situ light pollution measurements. The basic idea is to adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit measured light pollution. This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and in topography. This model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering, as well as aerosol absorption. These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models. Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present a first sensitive study applied to the ILLUMINA model.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 554
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Author Bará, S.; Aubé, M.; Barentine, J.; Zamorano, J.
Title (up) Magnitude to luminance conversions and visual brightness of the night sky Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 493 Issue 2 Pages 2429–2437
Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; atmospheric effects; techniques: photometric; methods: numerical; luminance
Abstract The visual brightness of the night sky is not a single-valued function of its brightness in other photometric bands, because the transformations between photometric systems depend on the spectral power distribution of the skyglow. We analyze the transformation between the night sky brightness in the Johnson-Cousins V band (mV, measured in magnitudes per square arcsecond, mpsas) and its visual luminance (L, in SI units cd m−2) for observers with photopic and scotopic adaptation, in terms of the spectral power distribution of the incident light. We calculate the zero-point luminances for a set of skyglow spectra recorded at different places in the world, including strongly light-polluted locations and sites with nearly pristine natural dark skies. The photopic skyglow luminance corresponding to mV = 0.00 mpsas is found to vary between 1.11–1.34 × 105 cd m−2 if mV is reported in the absolute (AB) magnitude scale, and between 1.18–1.43 × 105 cd m−2 if a Vega scale for mV is used instead. The photopic luminance for mV = 22.0 mpsas is correspondingly comprised between 176 and 213 μcd m−2 (AB), or 187 and 227 μcd m−2 (Vega). These constants tend to decrease for increasing correlated color temperatures (CCT). The photopic zero-point luminances are generally higher than the ones expected for blackbody radiation of comparable CCT. The scotopic-to-photopic luminance ratio (S/P) for our spectral dataset varies from 0.8 to 2.5. Under scotopic adaptation the dependence of the zero-point luminances with the CCT, and their values relative to blackbody radiation, are reversed with respect to photopic ones.
Address Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia; salva.bara(at)usc.gal
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2825
Permanent link to this record