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Author (up) Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.; Ghosh, T.
Title Extending Nighttime Combustion Source Detection Limits with Short Wavelength VIIRS Data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 395
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) collects low light imaging data at night in five spectral bands. The best known of these is the day/night band (DNB) which uses light intensification for imaging of moonlit clouds in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR). The other four low light imaging bands are in the NIR and short-wave infrared (SWIR), designed for daytime imaging, which continue to collect data at night. VIIRS nightfire (VNF) tests each nighttime pixel for the presence of sub-pixel IR emitters across six spectral bands with two bands each in three spectral ranges: NIR, SWIR, and MWIR. In pixels with detection in two or more bands, Planck curve fitting leads to the calculation of temperature, source area, and radiant heat using physical laws. An analysis of January 2018 global VNF found that inclusion of the NIR and SWIR channels results in a doubling of the VNF pixels with temperature fits over the detection numbers involving the MWIR. The addition of the short wavelength channels extends detection limits to smaller source areas across a broad range of temperatures. The VIIRS DNB has even lower detection limits for combustion sources, reaching 0.001 m2 at 1800 K, a typical temperature for a natural gas flare. Comparison of VNF tallies and DNB fire detections in a 2015 study area in India found the DNB had 15 times more detections than VNF. The primary VNF error sources are false detections from high energy particle detections (HEPD) in space and radiance saturation on some of the most intense events. The HEPD false detections are largely eliminated in the VNF output by requiring multiband detections for the calculation of temperature and source size. Radiance saturation occurs in about 1% of the VNF detections and occurs primarily in the M12 spectral band. Inclusion of the radiances affected by saturation results in temperature and source area calculation errors. Saturation is addressed by identifying the presence of saturation and excluding those radiances from the Planck curve fitting. The extremely low detection limits for the DNB indicates that a DNB fire detection algorithm could reveal vast numbers of combustion sources that are undetectable in longer wavelength VIIRS data. The caveats with the DNB combustion source detection capability is that it should be restricted to pixels that are outside the zone of known VIIRS detected electric lighting.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2218
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Author (up) Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.-C.; Baugh, K.
Title VIIRS Nightfire: Satellite Pyrometry at Night Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 5 Issue 9 Pages 4423-4449
Keywords SNPP; VIIRS; fire detection; gas flaring; biomass burning; fossil fuel carbon emissions
Abstract The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally, each night, by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites such as steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2), and radiant heat (MW). Use of the sensor noise limited M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands at night reduce scene background effects, which are widely reported for fire algorithms based on MWIR and long-wave infrared. High atmospheric transmissivity in the M10 spectral band reduces atmospheric effects on temperature and radiant heat retrievals. Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6,000 K. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Fire Radiative Power (MW).
Address Earth Observation Group, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 199
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Author (up) Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.C.; Ghosh, T.
Title VIIRS night-time lights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 38 Issue 21 Pages 5860-5879
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) collects global low-light imaging data that have significant improvements over comparable data collected for 40 years by the DMSP Operational Linescan System. One of the prominent features of DNB data is the detection of electric lighting present on the Earth’s surface. Most of these lights are from human settlements. VIIRS collects source data that could be used to generate monthly and annual science grade global radiance maps of human settlements with electric lighting. There are a substantial number of steps involved in producing a product that has been cleaned to exclude background noise, solar and lunar contamination, data degraded by cloud cover, and features unrelated to electric lighting (e.g. fires, flares, volcanoes). This article describes the algorithms developed for the production of high-quality global VIIRS night-time lights. There is a broad base of science users for VIIRS night-time lights products, ranging from land-use scientists, urban geographers, ecologists, carbon modellers, astronomers, demographers, economists, and social scientists.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1750
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Author (up) Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.E.; Anderson, S.J.; Sutton, P.C.; Ghosh, T.
Title The Lumen Gini Coefficient: a satellite imagery derived human development index Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Social Geography Discussions Abbreviated Journal Soc. Geogr. Discuss.
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 27-59
Keywords Gini coefficient; light at night; remote sensing; economics; development
Abstract The “Lumen Gini Coefficient” is a simple, objective, spatially explicit and globally available empirical measurement of human development derived solely from nighttime satellite imagery and population density. There is increasing recognition that the distribution of wealth and income amongst the population in a nation or region correlates strongly with both the overall happiness of that population and the environmental quality of that nation or region. Measuring the distribution of wealth and income at national and regional scales is an interesting and challenging problem. Gini coefficients derived from Lorenz curves are a well-established method of measuring income distribution. Nonetheless, there are many shortcomings of the Gini coefficient as a measure of income or wealth distribution. Gini coefficients are typically calculated using national level data on the distribution of income through the population. Such data are not available for many countries and the results are generally limited to single values representing entire countries. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of the distribution of “human development”, called the “Lumen Gini coefficient”, that is derived without the use of monetary measures of wealth and is capable of providing a spatial depiction of differences in development within countries.
Address NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1816-1502 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 216
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Author (up) Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.E.; Kihn, E.A.; Kroehl, H.W.; Davis, E.R.
Title Mapping city lights with night-time data from the DMSP operational linescan system. Type Journal Article
Year 1997 Publication Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 727-734
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) radiance at

night. With the OLS “VIS” band data, it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas pares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning illuminated clouds. This paper presents methods which have been developed for detecting and geolocating VNIR emission sources with nighttime DMSP-OLS data and the analysis of image time series to identify spatially stable emissions from cities, towns, and industrial sites. Results are presented for the United States.
Address Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Reno, NV 89506 and the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303; cde(at)ngdc.noaa.gov
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 497
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