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Author (up) Kamrowski, R.L.; Limpus, C.; Jones, R.; Anderson, S.; Hamann, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 20 Issue 8 Pages 2437-2449  
  Keywords GIS analysis; artificial light; conservation planning; marine turtles; population resilience; temporal change  
  Abstract Artificial light at night poses a significant threat to multiple taxa across the globe. In coastal regions, artificial lighting close to marine turtle nesting beaches is disruptive to their breeding success. Prioritizing effective management of light pollution requires an understanding of how the light exposure of nesting areas changes over time in response to changing temporal and spatial distributions of coastal development. We analyzed multitemporal, satellite night-light data, in combination with linear mixed model analysis, to determine broadscale changes in artificial light exposure at Australian marine turtle nesting areas between 1993 and 2010. We found seven marine turtle management units (MU), from five species, have experienced significant increases in light exposure over time, with flatback turtles nesting in east Australia experiencing the fastest increases. The remaining 12 MUs showed no significant change in light exposure. Unchanging MUs included those previously identified as having high exposure to light pollution (located in western Australia and southern Queensland), indicating that turtles in these areas have been potentially exposed to high light levels since at least the early nineties. At a finer geographic scale (within-MU), nine MUs contained nesting areas with significant increases in light exposure. These nesting areas predominantly occurred close to heavily industrialized coastal areas, thus emphasizing the importance of rigorous light management in industry. Within all MUs, nesting areas existed where light levels were extremely low and/or had not significantly increased since 1993. With continued coastal development, nesting females may shift to these darker/unchanging 'buffer' areas in the future. This is valuable information that informs our understanding of the capacity and resilience of marine turtles faced with coastal development: an understanding that is essential for effective marine turtle conservation.  
  Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24353164 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 73  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Kamrowski, R.L.; Limpus, C.; Pendoley, K.; Hamann, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of industrial light pollution on the sea-finding behaviour of flatback turtle hatchlings Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Wildlife Research Abbreviated Journal Wildl. Res.  
  Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 421  
  Keywords Animals; industrial development; marine turtle; Natator depressus; orientation; Port Curtis; Australia  
  Abstract Context. Numerous studies show that artificial light disrupts the sea-finding ability of marine turtle hatchlings. Yet very little has been published regarding sea-finding for flatback turtles. Given the current industrialisation of Australia’s coastline, and the large potential for disruption posed by industrial light, this study is a timely investigation into sea- finding behaviour of flatback turtle hatchlings.

Aims. We investigate sea-finding by flatback turtle hatchlings in relation to ambient light present in areas of planned or ongoing industrial development, and evaluate the fan and arena-based methods that are frequently used for quantifying hatchling dispersion.

Methods. Using a combination of methods, we assessed the angular range and directional preference of sea-finding hatchlings at two key flatback turtle rookeries, Peak and Curtis Islands, during January–February 2012 and 2013, and at Curtis Island in January 2014. Relative light levels at each site were measured using an Optec SSP-3 stellar photometer, and moon phase, moon stage and cloud cover were also recorded.

Key results. We found no evidence of impaired hatchling orientation, and observed very low levels of light at Peak Island. However, at Curtis Island, hatchlings displayed reduced sea-finding ability, with light horizons from the direction of nearby industry significantly brighter than from other directions. The sea-finding disruption observed at Curtis Island was less pronounced in the presence of moonlight.

Conclusions. The reduced sea-finding ability of Curtis Island hatchlings was likely due to both altered light horizons from nearby industry, as well as beach topography. Both methods of assessing hatchling orientation have benefits and limitations. We suggest that fan-based methods, combined with strategically placed arenas, would provide the best data for accurately assessing hatchling sea-finding.

Implications. Sky glow produced by large-scale industrial development appears detrimental to sea-finding by flatback turtle hatchlings. As development continues around Australia’s coastline, we strongly recommend continued monitoring of lighting impacts at adjacent turtle nesting beaches. We also advise rigorous management of industrial lighting, which considers cumulative light levels in regions of multiple light producers, as well as moon phase, moon-stage, cloud cover and time of hatchling emergence. All these factors affect the likelihood of disrupted hatchling sea-finding behaviour at nesting beaches exposed to artificial light-glow, industrial or otherwise.
 
  Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia; ruth.kamrowski@my.jcu.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher CSIRO Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1035-3712 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1109  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Balancing artificial light at night with turtle conservation? Coastal community engagement with light-glow reduction Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Environmental Conservation Abbreviated Journal Envir. Conserv.  
  Volume 42 Issue 02 Pages 171-181  
  Keywords Society; behaviour; community engagement; conservation; constraints; light pollution; marine turtles  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is a significant threat to biodiversity. Although efforts to reduce lighting are crucial for species’ conservation efforts, management is challenging because light at night is integral to modern society and light use is increasing with population and economic growth. The development and evaluation of appropriate light management strategies will require positive public support, and a comprehensive understanding of public engagement with light pollution. This is the first study to examine public engagement with reducing light at night for the protection of a threatened species. A community campaign to reduce artificial light use was initiated in 2008 to protect marine turtles at a globally significant nesting beach. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed community engagement with light-glow reduction, using an existing theoretical constraints framework. Despite high levels of cognitive and affective engagement (knowledge and concern), behavioural engagement (action) with light reduction in this community was limited. Community perceptions of light reduction were dominated by ‘uncertainty and scepticism’ and ‘externalizing responsibility/blame’, implying that behavioural engagement in this community may be increased by addressing these widely-held perceptions using modified campaign materials and/or strategic legislation. Further refinement of the theoretical constraints framework would better guide future empirical and conceptual research to improve understanding of public engagement with critical environmental issues.  
  Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cambridge Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-8929 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1284  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Potential applicability of persuasive communication to light-glow reduction efforts: a case study of marine turtle conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage  
  Volume 54 Issue 3 Pages 583-595  
  Keywords Society; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Animals; *Conservation of Natural Resources; Culture; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; Middle Aged; Persuasive Communication; Public Opinion; Queensland; Questionnaires; *Turtles; Young Adult  
  Abstract Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are deeply entrenched within modern society. We present a case study from Queensland, Australia, where an active light-glow reduction campaign has been in place since 2008 to protect nesting turtles. Semi-structured questionnaires explored community beliefs about reducing light and evaluated the potential for using persuasive communication techniques based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to increase engagement with light reduction. Respondents (n = 352) had moderate to strong intentions to reduce light. TPB variables explained a significant proportion of variance in intention (multiple regression: R (2) = 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001), but adding a personal norm variable improved the model (R (2) = 0.73-0.79, P < 0.001). Significant differences in belief strength between campaign compliers and non-compliers suggest that targeting the beliefs reducing light leads to “increased protection of local turtles” (P < 0.01) and/or “benefits to the local economy” (P < 0.05), in combination with an appeal to personal norms, would produce the strongest persuasion potential for future communications. Selective legislation and commitment strategies may be further useful strategies to increase community light reduction. As artificial light continues to gain attention as a pollutant, our methods and findings will be of interest to anyone needing to manage public artificial lighting.  
  Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0364-152X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24957580 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1283  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Pendoley, K.; Kamrowski, R.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sea-finding in marine turtle hatchlings: What is an appropriate exclusion zone to limit disruptive impacts of industrial light at night? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal for Nature Conservation Abbreviated Journal Journal for Nature Conservation  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords animals; conservation  
  Abstract Artificial light is increasingly being recognized as a globally-significant ecological threat, but appropriate management has lagged behind that of other environmental pollutants. Industrial developments associated with the extraction of natural resources generate large amounts of artificial light. Marine turtles are particularly vulnerable to disruption from artificial light, thus effective management of lighting is critical in areas where industrial developments occur close to nesting habitat. Given the complexity of managing lighting in industry, ensuring an adequate lighting exclusion zone between the development and the beach may be the most effective strategy for limiting impacts, yet there appears to have been little focus on clearly delineating a distance which constitutes an ‘adequate’ buffer. Using arena assays, we assessed flatback turtle (Natator depressus) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchling sea-finding ability in response to three standard industrial light sources (high pressure sodium (HPSV), metal halide (MH) and fluorescent white (FW)), positioned at distances of 100, 200, 500 and 800 m. Sea-finding in both species was disrupted by all three light types when lights were positioned 200 m or closer, but not when lights were positioned &#8805;500 m away. However, when shielding the lights so that light glow, but not the luminaire itself, was visible from the arena, the observed sea-finding disruption was considerably reduced. Given that facilities are typically lit by numerous luminaires, our findings demonstrate that future industrial developments should be separated from nearby nesting beaches by a buffer of at least 1.5 km, as previously theorized, with all installed lighting appropriately shaded. Such measures will help minimize lighting impacts on marine turtles as extractive resource operations continue to encroach on nesting beaches around the world.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1617-1381 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1328  
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