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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Richardson, J.S.; Sadler, J.P.; Wolter, C.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions, challenges, and perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication (up) Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere  
  Volume 2 Issue 11 Pages art122  
  Keywords aquatic invertebrates; artificial illumination; ecosystems; fish; multiple stressors; riparian; streams; urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is gaining attention for its potential to alter ecosystems. Although terrestrial ecologists have observed that artificial light at night may disrupt migrations, feeding, and other important ecological functions, we know comparatively little about the role artificial light might play in disrupting freshwater and riparian ecosystems. We identify and discuss four future research domains that artificial light may influence in freshwater and associated terrestrial ecosystems, with an emphasis on running waters: (1) dispersal, (2) population genetics and evolution, (3) ecosystem functioning, and (4) potential interactions with other stressors. We suggest that future experimental and modeling studies should focus on the effects of different spectral emissions by different light sources on freshwater organisms, the spatial and temporal scale over which artificial light acts, and the magnitude of change in light at night across the landscape relative to the distribution of running and standing waters. Improved knowledge about the effects of artificial light on freshwater ecosystems will inform policy decisions about changes to artificial light spectral emissions and distributions.

Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00241.1
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 24  
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of artificial lighting on adult aquatic and terrestrial insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Freshwater Biology Abbreviated Journal Freshw Biol  
  Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 368-377  
  Keywords biodiversity; connectivity; dispersal; high-pressure sodium lamp; light pollution; river  
  Abstract There is a growing concern that artificial light might affect local insect populations and disrupt their dispersal across the landscape. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effect of artificial light on flying insects in the field, with an emphasis on aquatic insects. We asked whether lights prevented the ability of insects to disperse across the landscape, a process that is crucial in colonising restored habitats.

We set up six, c. 3.5 m high downward facing high-pressure sodium streetlights along a permanently connected oxbow in the Spree River of eastern Germany. We collected insects using 12 flight intercept traps, each with trays at three different heights (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m), placed at distances 0, 3, 40 and 75 m from the lights and 5, 8 and 80 m from water. The number of emerging aquatic insects in the study area was measured with six emergence traps. We emptied the traps 22 times between June and September 2010; the lights were on for 11 of these nights and off for the other 11.

In total, we caught almost 27 times as many insects at traps 0 m from the lights when the lights were on than when they were off. Most insects caught when the lights were on were aquatic, with Diptera being the most common order. Furthermore, the proportion of aquatic insects caught at traps 0, 3 and 40 m from the lights when they were on was significantly higher than when they were off. On lit nights, more aquatic insects were captured per hour and m2 (area in which flying insects were intercepted) at traps 0 m from the lights than emerged from per square metre per hour from the Spree River.

Our results suggest that adult aquatic insects can be negatively affected by artificial light and that city planners should take this into account when designing lighting systems along rivers.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0046-5070 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 107  
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Tockner, K.; Richardson, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light as a disturbance to light-naïve streams Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Freshwater Biology Abbreviated Journal Freshw Biol  
  Volume 59 Issue 11 Pages 2235–2244  
  Keywords cutthroat trout; drift; invertebrates; light pollution; urbanization; *Fishes; Oncorhynchus clarkii; British Columbia  
  Abstract Summary

Artificial light at night is prevalent in human-dominated landscapes, and streams in these landscapes can be expected to be affected by artificial lights. We hypothesised that artificial light at night would reduce the activity of aquatic insects, resulting in reduced drift rates, lower fish growth rates and lower leaf litter decomposition rates.

We tested these hypotheses by installing street lights to reaches in four forested, natural streams of coastal British Columbia each paired with a control reach. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) are the top predators in these streams and feed mostly on terrestrial and drifting aquatic invertebrates.

We found that the night-time drift of aquatic invertebrates in lit reaches was ˜50% of the drift in dark reaches. However, the density of emerging aquatic insects, the density of insects falling into reaches, leaf litter decomposition rate and the number and growth rate of trout caught were not significantly different between the dark and experimentally lit reaches.

We conclude that, while short-term exposure to artificial light during the summer changes invertebrate behaviour, it does not significantly alter other trophic levels in forested headwater streams. Our results suggest that low levels of artificial light do not strongly influence stream ecosystems, but future research should determine whether this is true for all seasons and longer-term exposure to light.
 
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  ISSN 0046-5070 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 361  
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Heller, S.; Berghahn, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) PeerJ Abbreviated Journal PeerJ  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages e279  
  Keywords Acclimation; Gammarus; Invertebrate drift; Light pollution; Multispecies freshwater biomonitor  
  Abstract Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month's exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m x 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.  
  Address Umweltbundesamt , Berlin , Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24688857; PMCID:PMC3961812 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 322  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Degen, T.; Mitesser, O.; Perkin, E.K.; Weiss, N.-S.; Oehlert, M.; Mattig, E.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication (up) The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Biology  
  Abstract 1.Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. 2.In this study, we sought to determine if street lights could limit moth dispersal and if there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. 3.We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for two years at an experimental setup. To estimate the attraction radii we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. 4.Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0.44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner-light was 2.77 times more attractive than a wing-light with an equivalent attraction radius of c. 23m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. 5.These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures, and ii) that public lighting near important habitat structures but not interfering with local movement may affect moth movement between patches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27146262 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1439  
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Author Hölker, F.; Wolter, C.; Perkin, E.K.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution as a biodiversity threat Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication (up) Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol  
  Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 681-682  
  Keywords *Biodiversity; Biological Clocks; Biological Evolution; Ecosystem; *Environmental Monitoring; *Environmental Pollutants; Light/*adverse effects  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21035893 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 36  
Permanent link to this record
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