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Author Mpakairi, K.S.; Muvengwi, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time lights and their influence on summer night land surface temperature in two urban cities of Zimbabwe: A geospatial perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Climate Abbreviated Journal (down) Urban Climate  
  Volume 29 Issue Pages 100468  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Owing to the developments that exist in urban landscapes, urban areas experience climates that are different from their surroundings even when in the same climatic region. This is a prominent phenomenon in most urban areas and is commonly known as Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI). An understanding of some of the drivers of SUHI is imperative for cities worldwide if they endeavor to suppress the socio-economic mishaps related to extremely high UHI. In this study, we sought to explain the drivers of SUHI in two developing cities in Zimbabwe using remote sensing data. We do this through the use of a classification and regression model. The model used climate, land descriptors and anthropogenic activity data as predictor variables against summer night land surface temperature. Using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) for evaluation, modelled SUHI was strongly related to actual SUHI. We also found out that night-time lights, a proxy of anthropogenic activity, contributed more to summer night surface urban heat island as compared to other variables used in the study. This study adds more knowledge on the likely drivers of UHI for southern African cities. By identifying SUHI drivers in urban cities, it is plausible to formulate policies or initiatives that regulate extreme summer night SUHI.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2212-0955 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2497  
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Author Nang, E.E.K.; Abuduxike, G.; Posadzki, P.; Divakar, U.; Visvalingam, N.; Nazeha, N.; Dunleavy, G.; Christopoulos, G.I.; Soh, C.-K.; Jarbrink, K.; Soljak, M.; Car, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Review of the potential health effects of light and environmental exposures in underground workplaces Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology Abbreviated Journal (down) Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology  
  Volume 84 Issue Pages 201-209  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Underground workplaces are an important element in modern urban planning. As a result, an increasing but unquantified proportion of the population is being regularly exposed to them. We narratively reviewed the literature on the range of possible environmental exposures, and the possible health effects, to identify future research directions. There is a large but mainly observational research literature on likely underground exposures, including effects of artificial lighting, shift working and light at night on circadian disruptions and associated health effects. There are five studies comparing underground and aboveground environments. Shift working, artificial lighting and poor sleep quality leading to circadian disruption is one physiologic pathway. Working underground may increase exposure to these risks, and may also be associated with vitamin D deficiency, sick building syndrome, excessive noise, radon exposure, and negative psychological effects. In order to plan appropriate interventions, we need to expand our knowledge of the health effects of underground environments. Larger and longer-term studies are required to measure a range of human factors, environmental exposures and confounders. Controlled trials with health economic analyses of new lighting technologies are also required.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0886-7798 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2112  
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Author Chen, S.; Li, W.; Yang, S.; Zhang, B.; Li, T.; Du, Y.; Yang, M.; Zhao, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation method and reduction measures for the flicker effect in road lighting using fixed Low Mounting Height Luminaires Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology Abbreviated Journal (down) Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages 103101  
  Keywords Lighting; Vision  
  Abstract Low Mounting Height Luminaires (LMHL) are used in many cities on viaducts, cross-sea and cross-river bridges due to their unique advantages. However, the flicker effect is an important factor that needs to be considered in road lighting using fixed LMHL. At present, there are not many researchers in the field of international lighting. Previous types of road lighting design were based on the method of the tunnel lighting flicker effect. At the same time, the flicker effect is mainly based on the subjective feelings of people but is not quantified. In this paper, the Flicker Index (FI) is calculated by measuring the parameters of streetlamps to evaluation flicker effect. Secondly, the suggestion to offset the flicker effect in CIE 88-2004 “Guide for the Lighting of Road Tunnels and Underpasses” is to limit the speed of the vehicle and adjust the road light spacing to avoid the flicker sensitive area on human eyes, while ignoring the essential problem of how the flicker effect is generated through the energy level of the stimulating optical signal. Two factors affecting the strength of the flicker effect are proposed: energy ratio and duty cycle. The duty cycle, in time, refers to the proportion of the strong and weak flashing signals during the period; in space, it refers to the proportional relationship between the length of the luminaire and the distance between the lamps, which is related to the running speed of the vehicle. It is consistent with the CIE recommendations for flicker. Thirdly, the essence of the flicker effect is the problem of the energy level of the stimulus signal. This study investigated the reduction in the brightness of the light source, hence reducing the energy of the visual stimulation signal to the human eye in order to judge the degree of fatigue in human vision. The experimental results show that the degree of fatigue in human vision decreases when the brightness of the experimental light source decreases. Therefore, the key to changing the flicker effect of LMHL is to reduce the contrast between the surface brightness of the luminaire and the brightness of the spatial background.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0886-7798 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2663  
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Author Huffeldt, N.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Photic Barriers to Poleward Range-shifts Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal (down) Trends Ecol Evol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; biological rhythm; global climate change; phenology; photoperiod; photoreception; range-shift  
  Abstract With climate warming, organisms are shifting their ranges towards the poles, tracking their optimal thermal environments. Day-length, the driver of daily and annual timing, is, however, fixed by latitude and date. Timing and photoreception mechanisms adapted to ancestral photic environments may restrict range-shift capacity, resulting in photic barriers to range-shifts.  
  Address Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland; Arctic Ecosystem Ecology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Electronic address: nph@bios.au.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32473743 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2992  
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Author Barrette, T.P.; Pike, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Closed-Course Human Factors Evaluation of Marking and Marker Visibility Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Research Record  
  Volume 2673 Issue 10 Pages 840-849  
  Keywords Vision; Transportation; Raised retroreflective pavement markers; retroreflectivity  
  Abstract Raised retroreflective pavement markers (RRPMs) are commonly used to provide nighttime delineation of roadways. Although RRPMs are visible during dry conditions, they provide their greatest benefit during wet-night conditions, when typical pavement markings become flooded and lose their retroreflectivite properties. Naturally, the retroreflectivity of RRPMs degrades over time as a result of traffic, ultraviolet light, precipitation, and roadway maintenance activities. Subsequently, it is necessary to examine the relationship between driver performance and the condition of the RRPMs. To assess visibility relative to RRPM condition, study participants rode in the passenger seat of a vehicle operated by a member of the research team, traveling at approximately 15 mph, for two laps around a closed course. Throughout each lap of the course, nine treatments consisting of RRPMs or preformed pavement marking tape of various retroreflectivity levels diverged from a center line to either the right or left. Participants indicated when they could tell which direction the treatment diverged, which was recorded using a GPS unit. A generalized linear model was estimated on a dataset constructed by pairing the observed distances from various treatments with demographic information about each participant. The analysis indicates the distance at which a particular treatment would be visible, which can then be converted to preview time to assess treatment adequacy for a variety of speeds. The RRPM treatments generally provided adequate preview time for older drivers based on the extant literature; however, the preformed pavement marking tape was less adequate at higher speeds and under overhead lighting.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2499  
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