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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal (down) Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161  
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Author Manríquez, P.H.; Jara, M.E.; Diaz, M.I.; Quijón, P.A.; Widdicombe, S.; Pulgar, J.; Manríquez, K.; Quintanilla-Ahumada, D.; Duarte, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution influences behavioral and physiological traits in a keystone predator species, Concholepas concholepas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal (down) Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an increasing global problem that, despite being widely recognized in terrestrial systems, has been studied much less in marine habitats. In this study we investigated the effect of ALAN on behavioral and physiological traits of Concholepas concholepas, an important keystone species of the south-eastern Pacific coast. We used juveniles collected in intertidal habitats that had not previously been exposed to ALAN. In the laboratory we exposed them to two treatments: darkness and white LED (Lighting Emitting Diodes) to test for the impacts of ALAN on prey-searching behavior, self-righting time and metabolism. In the field, the distribution of juveniles was observed during daylight-hours to determine whether C. concholepas preferred shaded or illuminated microhabitats. Moreover, we compared the abundance of juveniles collected during day- and night-time hours. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that juveniles of C. concholepas seek out and choose their prey more efficiently in darkened areas. White LED illuminated conditions increased righting times and metabolism. Field surveys indicated that, during daylight hours, juveniles were more abundant in shaded micro-habitats than in illuminated ones. However, during darkness hours, individuals were not seen to aggregate in any particular microhabitats. We conclude that the exposure to ALAN might disrupt important behavioral and physiological traits of small juveniles in this species which, as a mechanism to avoid visual predators, are mainly active at night. It follows that ALAN in coastal areas might modify the entire community structure of intertidal habitats by altering the behavior of this keystone species.  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2173  
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Author Czarnecka, M.; Kakareko, T.; Jermacz, Ł.; Pawlak, R.; Kobak, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Combined effects of nocturnal exposure to artificial light and habitat complexity on fish foraging Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal (down) Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Due to the widespread use of artificial light, freshwater ecosystems in urban areas at night are often subjected to light of intensities exceeding that of the moonlight. Nocturnal dim light could modify fish behaviour and benefit visual predators because of enhanced foraging success compared to dark nights. However, effects of nocturnal light could be mitigated by the presence of structured habitats providing refuges for prey. We tested in laboratory experiments whether nocturnal light of low intensity (2 lx) increases foraging efficiency of the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) on invertebrate prey (Gammarus fossarum). The tests were conducted at dusk and night under two light regimes: natural cycle with dark nights and disturbed cycle with artificially illuminated nights, in habitats differing in structural complexity: sand and woody debris. We found that nocturnal illumination significantly enhanced the consumption of gammarids by fish compared to dark nights. In addition, the perch was as effective predator in illuminated nights (2 lx) as at dusk (10 lx). Woody debris provided an effective refuge only in combination with undisturbed darkness, but not in illuminated nights. Our results suggest that nocturnal illumination in aquatic ecosystems may contribute to significant reductions in invertebrate population sizes through fish predation. The loss of darkness reduces the possibility of using shelters by invertebrates and hence the effects of elevated light levels at night could not be mitigated by an increased habitat complexity.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2507  
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Author Garratt, M.J.; Jenkins, S.R.; Davies, T.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping the consequences of artificial light at night for intertidal ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal (down) Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume 691 Issue Pages 760-768  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting  
  Abstract Widespread coastal urbanization has resulted in artificial light pollution encroaching into intertidal habitats, which are highly valued by society for ecosystem services including coastal protection, climate regulation and recreation. While the impacts of artificial light at night in terrestrial and riparian ecosystems are increasingly well documented, those on organisms that reside in coastal intertidal habitats are less well explored. The distribution of artificial light at night from seaside promenade lighting was mapped across a sandy shore, and its consequences for macroinvertebrate community structure quantified accounting for other collinear environmental variables known to shape biodiversity in intertidal ecosystems (shore height, wave exposure and organic matter content). Macroinvertebrate community composition significantly changed along artificial light gradients. Greater numbers of species and total community biomass were observed with increasing illumination, a relationship that was more pronounced (increased effects size) with increasing organic matter availability. Individual taxa exhibited different relationships with artificial light illuminance; the abundances of 27% of non-rare taxa [including amphipods (Amphipoda), catworms (Nephtys spp.), and sand mason worms (Lanice conchilega)] decreased with increasing illumination, while 20% [including tellins (Tellinidae spp.), lugworms (Arenicola marina) and ragworms (Nereididae spp.)] increased. Possible causes of these relationships are discussed, including direct effects of artificial light on macroinvertebrate behaviour and indirect effects via trophic interactions. With increasing light pollution in coastal zones around the world, larger scale changes in intertidal ecosystems could be occurring.  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2590  
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Author Vanbergen, A.J.; Potts, S.G.; Vian, A.; Malkemper, E.P.; Young, J.; Tscheulin, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Risk to pollinators from anthropogenic electro-magnetic radiation (EMR): Evidence and knowledge gaps Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal (down) Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Review; Animals  
  Abstract Worldwide urbanisation and use of mobile and wireless technologies (5G, Internet of Things) is leading to the proliferation of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and campaigning voices continue to call for the risk to human health and wildlife to be recognised. Pollinators provide many benefits to nature and humankind, but face multiple anthropogenic threats. Here, we assess whether artificial light at night (ALAN) and anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (AREMR), such as used in wireless technologies or emitted from power lines, represent an additional and growing threat to pollinators. A lack of high quality scientific studies means that knowledge of the risk to pollinators from anthropogenic EMR is either inconclusive, unresolved, or only partly established. A handful of studies provide evidence that ALAN can alter pollinator communities, pollination and fruit set. Laboratory experiments provide some, albeit variable, evidence that the honey bee Apis mellifera and other invertebrates can detect EMR, potentially using it for orientation or navigation, but they do not provide evidence that AREMR affects insect behaviour in ecosystems. Scientifically robust evidence of AREMR impacts on abundance or diversity of pollinators (or other invertebrates) are limited to a single study reporting positive and negative effects depending on the pollinator group and geographical location. Therefore, whether anthropogenic EMR (ALAN or AREMR) poses a significant threat to insect pollinators and the benefits they provide to ecosystems and humanity remains to be established.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2613  
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