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Author Garstang, R.H.
Title Dust and Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 1991 Publication The Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal
Volume 103 Issue Pages 1109-1116
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract (down) We have refined our model for the prediction ofthe brightness ofthe night sky due to man-made light pollution by the addition of an ozone layer, by the use ofa more accurate representation ofthe atmospheric molecular density variation as a function ofheight, and by using a better mathematical representation ofthe scattering angular function of aerosols. Each ofthese modifications leads to a small reduction in the predicted brightness ofthe night sky. We have also added to our model a thin layer ofdust ofarbitrary optical thickness and height above sea level. We have studied dust clouds at various heights and ofvarious optical thicknesses. Most ofour calculations have been performed for Kitt Peak National Observatory. Most calculations have used scattering and absorption coefficients appropriate for volcanic clouds; a few calculations refer to desert dust. Light pollution is reduced by a dust cloud ofmoderate density whose altitude is below about 10 km (for the V band) and increased for dust clouds at greater altitudes. Observations from good sites are not likely to be greatly affected by the increases in light pollution caused by volcanic clouds at altitudes oforder 20 km.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2523
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Author Tselios, V.; Stathakis, D.
Title Exploring regional and urban clusters and patterns in Europe using satellite observed lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science Abbreviated Journal Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (down) We explore regional and urban clusters and patterns in Europe by using satellite images of nighttime lights and by employing Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. We map Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights data onto the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics III, Local Administrative Units II and pixel (i.e. 1 km2 grid cell system of Europe) level and apply global and local statistics of spatial association. Under the assumption that nighttime light data are a good proxy for economic activity, the analysis at regional level shows that the regions of global cities and megacities and their surrounding areas are hot spots of high economic activity levels. The regional analysis also reveals the polycentric hierarchical structure of Europe. Using the case studies of the regions of London and Île-de-France, the analysis at the urban level reveals the different urban structure of these two global regions and identifies the functional urban areas of London and Paris.
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ISSN 2399-8083 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1981
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Author Doleac, J.L.; Sanders, N.J.
Title Under the Cover of Darkness: How Ambient Light Influences Criminal Activity Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics
Volume 97 Issue 5 Pages 1093-1103
Keywords Public Safety; Crime
Abstract (down) We exploit daylight saving time (DST) as an exogenous shock to daylight, using both the discontinuous nature of the policy and the 2007 extension of DST, to consider the impact of light on criminal activity.Regression discontinuity estimates show a 7% decrease in robberies following the shift to DST. As expected, effects are largest during the hours directly affected by the shift in daylight. We discuss our findings within the context of criminal decision making and labor supply, and estimate that the2007 DST extension resulted in $59 million in annual social cost savings from avoided robberies.
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ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2836
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Author Stefani, O.; Freyburger, M.; Veitz, S.; Basishvili, T.; Meyer, M.; Weibel, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Shirakawa, Y.; Cajochen, C.
Title Changing color and intensity of LED lighting across the day impacts on circadian melatonin rhythms and sleep in healthy men Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume in press Issue Pages e12714
Keywords Human health; Lighting; cognition; humans; male; melatonin; non-visual effects of light; sleep; wakefulness
Abstract (down) We examined whether dynamically changing light across a scheduled 16-h waking day influences sleepiness, cognitive performance, visual comfort, melatonin secretion, and sleep under controlled laboratory conditions in healthy men. Fourteen participants underwent a 49-h laboratory protocol in a repeated-measures study design. They spent the first 5-h in the evening under standard lighting, followed by an 8-h nocturnal sleep episode at habitual bedtimes. Thereafter, volunteers either woke up to static light or to a dynamic light that changed spectrum and intensity across the scheduled 16-h waking day. Following an 8-h nocturnal sleep episode, the volunteers spent another 11-h either under static or dynamic light. Static light attenuated the evening rise in melatonin levels more compared to dynamic light as indexed by a significant reduction in the melatonin AUC prior to bedtime during static light only. Participants felt less vigilant in the evening during dynamic light. After dynamic light, sleep latency was significantly shorter in both the baseline and treatment night while sleep structure, sleep quality, cognitive performance and visual comfort did not significantly differ. The study shows that dynamic changes in spectrum and intensity of light promote melatonin secretion and sleep initiation in healthy men.
Address Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences (MCN), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:33378563 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3219
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Author Sutton, P.C.; Costanza, R.
Title Global estimates of market and non-market values derived from nighttime satellite imagery, land cover, and ecosystem service valuation Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Ecological Economics Abbreviated Journal Ecological Economics
Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 509-527
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (down) We estimated global marketed and non-marketed economic value from two classified satellite images with global coverage at 1 km2 resolution. GDP (a measure of marketed economic output) is correlated with the amount of light energy (LE) emitted by that nation as measured by nighttime satellite images. LE emitted is more spatially explicit than whole country GDP, may (for some nations or regions) be a more accurate indicator of economic activity than GDP itself, can be directly observed, and can be easily updated on an annual basis. As far as we know, this is the first global map of estimated economic activity produced at this high spatial resolution (1 km2). Ecosystem services product (ESP) is an important type of non-marketed value. ESP at 1 km2 resolution was estimated using the IGBP land-cover dataset and unit ecosystem service values estimated by Costanza et al. [Valuing Ecosystem Services with Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals. Nature's Services, Island Press, Washington DC, pp. 49–70]. The sum of these two (GDP+ESP)=SEP is a measure of the subtotal ecological–economic product (marketed plus a significant portion of the non-marketed). The ratio: (ESP/SEP)×100=%ESP is a measure of proportion of the SEP from ecosystem services. Both SEP and %ESP were calculated and mapped for each 1 km2 pixel on the earth's surface, and aggregated by country. Results show the detailed spatial patterns of GDP, ESP, and SEP (also available at: http://www.du.edu/∼psutton/esiindexisee/EcolEconESI.htm). Globally, while GDP is concentrated in the northern industrialized countries, ESP is concentrated in tropical regions and in wetlands and other coastal systems. %ESP ranges from 1% for Belgium and Luxembourg to 3% for the Netherlands, 18% for India, 22% for the United States, 49% for Costa Rica, 57% for Chile, 73% for Brazil, and 92% for Russia. While GDP per capita has the usual northern industrialized countries at the top of the list, SEP per capita shows a quite different picture, with a mixture of countries with either high GDP/capita, high ESP/capita, or a combination near the top of the list. Finally, we compare our results with two other indices: (1) The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) derived as an initiative of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow Environment Task Force, World Economic Forum, and (2) Ecological Footprints of Nations: How much Nature do they use? How much Nature do they have? developed by Mathis Wackernagel and others. While both of these indices purport to measure sustainability, the ESI is actually mainly a measure of economic activity (and is correlated with GDP), while the Eco-Footprint index is a measure of environmental impact. The related eco-deficit (national ecological capacity minus national footprint) correlates well with %ESP.
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ISSN 0921-8009 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2477
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