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Author Garratt, M.J.; Jenkins, S.R.; Davies, T.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping the consequences of artificial light at night for intertidal ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume 691 Issue Pages 760-768  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting  
  Abstract (down) Widespread coastal urbanization has resulted in artificial light pollution encroaching into intertidal habitats, which are highly valued by society for ecosystem services including coastal protection, climate regulation and recreation. While the impacts of artificial light at night in terrestrial and riparian ecosystems are increasingly well documented, those on organisms that reside in coastal intertidal habitats are less well explored. The distribution of artificial light at night from seaside promenade lighting was mapped across a sandy shore, and its consequences for macroinvertebrate community structure quantified accounting for other collinear environmental variables known to shape biodiversity in intertidal ecosystems (shore height, wave exposure and organic matter content). Macroinvertebrate community composition significantly changed along artificial light gradients. Greater numbers of species and total community biomass were observed with increasing illumination, a relationship that was more pronounced (increased effects size) with increasing organic matter availability. Individual taxa exhibited different relationships with artificial light illuminance; the abundances of 27% of non-rare taxa [including amphipods (Amphipoda), catworms (Nephtys spp.), and sand mason worms (Lanice conchilega)] decreased with increasing illumination, while 20% [including tellins (Tellinidae spp.), lugworms (Arenicola marina) and ragworms (Nereididae spp.)] increased. Possible causes of these relationships are discussed, including direct effects of artificial light on macroinvertebrate behaviour and indirect effects via trophic interactions. With increasing light pollution in coastal zones around the world, larger scale changes in intertidal ecosystems could be occurring.  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2590  
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Author Xie, C.; Zhu, H.; Chen, S.; Wen, Y.; Jin, L.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Shen, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Chronic retinal injury induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures as determined by microarray analyses of genome-wide expression patterns in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology Abbreviated Journal J Photochem Photobiol B  
  Volume 210 Issue Pages 111977  
  Keywords Animals; Vision; Autophagy; Cct; Expression profile microarray; Genome-wide; Led; Retinal photoreceptor degeneration; Ubiquitin  
  Abstract (down) Widely used white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) currently deliver higher levels of blue light than conventional domestic light sources. The high intensity of the blue component is the main source of concern regarding possible health risks of LED to chronic light toxicity to the retina. Therefore, we analyzed retinal injury and genome-wide changes in gene expression induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) in a mouse model. Balb/c mice (10 weeks old) were exposed to LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K, at different illuminance levels (250, 500, 1000, and 3000 lx) and for different exposure times (7, 14, and 28 days). Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that exposure to 7378 K light at 250 lx for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of outer nuclear layer (ONL) nuclei, whereas 2954 K light at <3000 lx led to only a mild reduction in the number of ONL nuclei. In addition, 5624 and 7378 K light at 3000 lx resulted in a significant increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei, which was not found at an illuminance of 1000 lx. Genome-wide expression analyses showed that, compared to a control group, there were 121 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 458 downregulated DEGs found in the 7378 K group, and 59 upregulated and only 4 downregulated DEGs in the 2954 K group. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that the DEGs were involved in 341 GO terms and 16 related pathways for the 7378 K group and in 12 GO terms and 7 related pathways for the 2954 K group. Signal pathways related to ubiquitin potentially played an important role in light-induced retinal degeneration. Furthermore, retinal immunohistochemistry (IHC) indicated downregulation of ubiquitin and autophagy function caused by 7378 K light. Taken together, these results indicate that retinal injury in the mice induced by white LED light occurred in a CCT-dependent manner, and that light with a higher CCT was more likely to reduce ONL nuclei; however, the apoptosis pathway may not be the only mechanism involved. Based on genome-wide expression analyses and retinal IHC, the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis signal pathway may have participated in the induction retinal degeneration.  
  Address Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: idrshen@zju.edu.com  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32738749 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3086  
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Author Touitou, Y.; Point, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects and mechanisms of action of light-emitting diodes on the human retina and internal clock Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 190 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Review; Human Health; Biological clock; Blue light; Electronic media; Endocrine disruptor; Environmental synchronizers; Light at night; Melatonin; Night work; Retinal phototoxicity; Shift work; Sleep disorder  
  Abstract (down) White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) will likely become the most used lighting devices worldwide in the future because of their very low prices over the course of their long lifespans which can be up to several tens of thousands of hours. The expansion of LED use in both urban and domestic lighting has prompted questions regarding their possible health effects, because the light that they provide is potentially high in the harmful blue band (400-500nm) of the visible light spectrum. Research on the potential effects of LEDs and their blue band on human health has followed three main directions: 1) examining their retinal phototoxicity; 2) examining disruption of the internal clock, i.e., an out-of-sync clock, in shift workers and night workers, including the accompanying health issues, most concerningly an increased relative risk of cancer; and 3) examining risky, inappropriate late-night use of smartphones and consoles among children and adolescents. Here, we document the recognized or potential health issues associated with LED lighting together with their underlying mechanisms of action. There is so far no evidence that LED lighting is deleterious to human retina under normal use. However, exposure to artificial light at night is a new source of pollution because it affects the circadian clock. Blue-rich light, including cold white LEDs, should be considered a new endocrine disruptor, because it affects estrogen secretion and has unhealthful consequences in women, as demonstrated to occur via a complex mechanism.  
  Address Cooper Securite SAS, 63200, Riom, France  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32758719 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3091  
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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street Lighting and Public Safety: New Nighttime Lighting Documentation Method Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication ARCC Conference Repository Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract (down) While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2103  
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Author Doulos, L.T.; Sioutis, I.; Kontaxis, P.; Zissis, G.; Faidas, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A decision support system for assessment of street lighting tenders based on energy performance indicators and environmental criteria: Overview, methodology and case study Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society  
  Volume 51 Issue Pages 101759  
  Keywords Lighting; Policy  
  Abstract (down) While LEDs are now the most efficient light sources, their adoption in the road lighting design has been delayed due to a variety of reasons such as malpractice, huge number of inappropriate luminaires, missing technical information and ineffective policies. An example is the, low luminous efficacy values, which confuse the decision makers for national roads. The new part of EN13201-5 describes many energy performance indicators, which are still not used in street light projects or in lighting simulation tools. The aim of this paper is a) to present the significance of using these indicators through a decision tool, capable to evaluate a number of lighting designs in a lighting tender and b) to propose an evaluation method as part of a future energy policy including environmental criteria. A case study is also presented. The results show that the aforementioned decision tool is necessary in order to evaluate the ranking of the corresponding offers. Thus, increased energy savings could be achieved together with environmental benefits. In the case examined, the best solution resulted in 72.1% energy savings and CO2 emission reduction.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2609  
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