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Author Bombieri, G.; Delgado, M. del M.; Russo, L.F.; Garrote, P.J.; López-Bao, J.V.; Fedriani, J.M.; Penteriani, V.
Title Patterns of wild carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) Attacks by wild carnivores on humans represent an increasing problem in urban areas across North America and their frequency is expected to rise following urban expansion towards carnivore habitats. Here, we analyzed records of carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas of the U.S. and Canada between 1980 and 2016 to analyze the general patterns of the attacks, as well as describe the landscape structure and, for those attacks occurring at night, the light conditions at the site of the attacks. We found that several behavioral and landscape-related factors were recurrent elements in the attacks recorded. The species for which the attack locations were available (coyote and black bear) attacked in areas with different conditions of landscape structure and artificial light. Specifically, black bears attacked more frequently in areas with abundant and aggregated vegetation cover and scarce buildings and roads, while coyotes attacked in a broader range of landscape conditions. At night, black bears attacked in generally darker areas than coyotes. By providing a comprehensive perspective of the phenomenon, this study will improve our understanding of how effective strategies aimed at reducing the frequency of risky encounters in urban areas should be developed.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2130
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Author Lamphar, H.
Title Spatio-temporal association of light pollution and urban sprawl using remote sensing imagery and GIS: A simple method based in Otsu's algorithm Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 251 Issue Pages 107060
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (up) Automatic thresholding methods are used to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land subject to different natural and anthropogenic processes. Image segmentation plays an important role in this analysis, where urban sprawl detection take place with daylight images. However, recently some investigators have used nocturnal images in remote sensing imagery research. Such georeferenced data represent a good tool for analysis of the light pollution and urban sprawl. There are various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of the light projected from the cities. Though, with a correct method based on background subtraction, any satellite remotely sensed nocturnal image can be useful in detecting urban sprawl. We base this work on thresholding processes of georeferenced nocturnal satellite images. We used a method combining digital classification techniques, geographic information systems and statistical analyzes. The proposed method is helpful because of a simple implementation and time saving. The pixel intensity of nocturnal images can offer a tool to calculate aspects related to electricity consumption and the efficiency of public lighting. We hope the results motivates other authors to study relationships with other social, natural and economic issues.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2990
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Author Ramdani, F.; Setiani, P.
Title Multiscale assessment of progress of electrification in Indonesia based on brightness level derived from nighttime satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Abbreviated Journal Environ Monit Assess
Volume 189 Issue 6 Pages 249
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (up) Availability of electricity can be used as an indicator to proximate parameters related to human well-being. Overall, the electrification process in Indonesia has been accelerating in the past two decades. Unfortunately, monitoring the country's progress on its effort to provide wider access to electricity poses challenges due to inconsistency of data provided by each national bureau, and limited availability of information. This study attempts to provide a reliable measure by employing nighttime satellite imagery to observe and to map the progress of electrification within a duration of 20 years, from 1993 to 2013. Brightness of 67,021 settlement-size points in 1993, 2003, and 2013 was assessed using data from DMSP/OLS instruments to study the electrification progress in the three service regions (Sumatera, Java-Bali, and East Indonesia) of the country's public electricity company, PLN. Observation of all service areas shows that the increase in brightness, which correspond with higher electricity development and consumption, has positive correlation with both population density (R(2) = 0.70) and urban change (R(2) = 0.79). Moreover, urban change has a stronger correlation with brightness, which is probably due to the high energy consumption in urban area per capita. This study also found that the brightness in Java-Bali region is very dominant, while the brightness in other areas has been lagging during the period of analysis. The slow development of electricity infrastructure, particularly in major parts of East Indonesia region, affects the low economic growth in some areas and formed vicious cycle.
Address Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0167-6369 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28466451 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2490
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Author Helbich, M.; Browning, M.H.E.M.; Huss, A.
Title Outdoor light at night, air pollution and depressive symptoms: A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume in press Issue Pages 140914
Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health
Abstract (up) Background

Artificial light at night (ALAN) may be an anthropogenic stressor for mental health disturbing humans' natural day–night cycle. However, the few existing studies used satellite-based measures of radiances for outdoor ALAN exposure assessments, which were possibly confounded by traffic-related air pollutants.

Objective

To assess 1) whether living in areas with increased exposure to outdoor ALAN is associated with depressive symptoms; and 2) to assess the potential confounding effects of air pollution.

Methods

We used cross-sectional data from people (N = 10,482) aged 18–65 years in the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ–9). Satellite-measured annual ALAN were taken from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. ALAN exposures were assessed at people's home address within 100 and 600 m buffers. We used generalized (geo)additive models to quantify associations between PHQ–9 scores and quintiles of ALAN adjusting for several potential confounders including PM2.5 and NO2.

Findings

Unadjusted estimates for the 100 m buffers showed that people in the 2nd to 5th ALAN quintile showed significantly higher PHQ–9 scores than those in the lowest ALAN quintile (βQ2 = 0.503 [95% confidence interval, 0.207–0.798], βQ3 = 0.587 [0.291–0.884], βQ4 = 0.921 [0.623–1.218], βQ5 = 1.322 [1.023–1.620]). ALAN risk estimates adjusted for individual and area-level confounders (i.e., PM2.5, urbanicity, noise, land-use diversity, greenness, deprivation, and social fragmentation) were attenuated but remained significant for the 100 m buffer (βQ2 = 0.420 [0.125–0.715], βQ3 = 0.383 [0.071–0.696], βQ4 = 0.513 [0.177–0.850], βQ5 = 0.541 [0.141–0.941]). When adjusting for NO2 per 100 m buffers, the air pollutant was associated with PHQ–9 scores, but ALAN did not display an exposure-response relationship. ALAN associations were insignificance for 600 m buffers.

Interpretation

Accounting for NO2 exposure suggested that air pollution rather than outdoor ALAN correlated with depressive symptoms. Future evaluations of health effects from ALAN should consider potential confounding by traffic-related exposures (i.e., NO2).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3056
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Author Marín-Gómez, O.H.; García-Arroyo, M.; Sánchez-Sarria, C.E.; Sosa-López, J.R.; Santiago-Alarcon, D.; MacGregor-Fors, I.
Title Nightlife in the city: drivers of the occurrence and vocal activity of a tropical owl Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Avian Research Abbreviated Journal Avian Res
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) Background

Cities differ from non-urban environments by the intensity, scale, and extent of anthropogenic pressures, which can drive the occurrence, physiology, and behavior of the organisms thriving in these settings. Traits as green cover often predict the occurrence patterns of bird species in urban areas. Yet, anthropogenic noise and artificial light at night (ALAN) could also limit the presence and disrupt the behavior of birds. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge about the influence of urbanization through noise and light pollution on nocturnal bird species ecology. In this study, we assessed the role of green cover, noise, and light pollution on the occurrence and vocal activity of the Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata) in the city of Xalapa (Mexico).

Methods

We obtained soundscape recordings in 61 independent sites scattered across the city of Xalapa using autonomous recording units. We performed a semi-automated acoustic analysis of the recordings, corroborating all Mottled Owl vocalizations. We calculated two measures of anthropogenic noise at each study site: daily noise (during 24 h) and masking noise (mean noise amplitude at night per site that could mask the owl’s vocalizations). We further performed generalized linear models to relate green cover, ALAN, daily noise, and masking noise in relation to the owl’s occurrence (i.e., detected, undetected). We also ran linear models to assess relationships among the beginning and ending of vocal activity with ALAN, and with the anthropogenic and masking noise levels at the moment of which vocalizations were emitted. Finally, we explored variations of the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl measured as vocalization rate across time.

Results

The presence of Mottled Owls increased with the size of green cover and decreased with increases in both artificial light at night and noise levels. At the temporal scale, green cover was positively related with the ending of the owl’s vocal activity, while daily noise and ALAN levels were not related to the timing and vocal output (i.e., number of vocalizations). Furthermore, the Mottled Owl showed a marked peak of vocal activity before dawn than after dusk. Although anthropogenic noise levels varied significantly across the assessed time, we did not find an association between high vocal output during time periods with lower noise levels.

Conclusions

Spatially, green cover area was positively related with the presence of the Mottled Owl in Xalapa, while high noise and light pollution were related to its absence. At a temporal scale, daily noise and ALAN levels were not related with the timing and vocal output. This suggests that instead of environmental factors, behavioral contexts such as territoriality and mate interactions could drive the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl. Further studies need to incorporate a wider seasonal scale in order to explore the variation of different vocalizations of this species in relation to environmental and biological factors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2053-7166 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2912
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