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Author Kinzey, B.R.; Perrin, T.E.; Miller, N.J.; Kocifaj, M.; Aubé, M.; Lamphar, H.A.
Title An investigation of LED street lighting's impact on sky glow Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume PNNL-26411 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; Lighting
Abstract (up) A significant amount of public attention has recently focused on perceived impacts of converting street lighting from incumbent lamp-based products to LED technology. Much of this attention pertains to the higher content of short wavelength light (commonly referred to as “blue light”) of LEDs and its attendant influences on sky glow (a brightening of the night sky that can interfere with astronomical observation and may be associated with a host of other issues). The complexity of this topic leads to common misunderstandings and misperceptions among the public, and for this reason the U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program embarked on a study of sky glow using a well-established astronomical model to investigate some of the primary factors influencing sky glow. This report details the results of the investigation and attempts to present those results in terms accessible to the general lighting community. The report also strives to put the results into a larger context, and help educate interested readers on various topics relevant to the issues being discussed.
Address
Corporate Author Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2014
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Author Leise, T.L.; Goldberg, A.; Michael, J.; Montoya, G.; Solow, S.; Molyneux, P.; Vetrivelan, R.; Harrington, M.E.
Title Recurring circadian disruption alters circadian clock sensitivity to resetting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The European Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurosci
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) A single phase advance of the light:dark (LD) cycle can temporarily disrupt synchrony of neural circadian rhythms within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and between the SCN and peripheral tissues. Compounding this, modern life can involve repeated disruptive light conditions. To model chronic disruption to the circadian system, we exposed male mice to more than a month of a 20 h light cycle (LD10:10), which mice typically cannot entrain to. Control animals were housed under LD12:12. We measured locomotor activity and body temperature rhythms in vivo, and rhythms of PER2::LUC bioluminescence in SCN and peripheral tissues ex vivo. Unexpectedly, we discovered strong effects of the time of dissection on circadian phase of PER2::LUC bioluminescent rhythms, which varied across tissues. White adipose tissue was strongly reset by dissection, while thymus phase appeared independent of dissection timing. Prior light exposure impacted the SCN, resulting in strong resetting of SCN phase by dissection for mice housed under LD10:10, and weak phase shifts by time of dissection in SCN from control LD12:12 mice. These findings suggest that exposure to circadian disruption may desynchronize SCN neurons, increasing network sensitivity to perturbations. We propose that tissues with a weakened circadian network, such as the SCN under disruptive light conditions, or with little to no coupling, e.g., some peripheral tissues, will show increased resetting effects. In particular, exposure to light at inconsistent circadian times on a recurring weekly basis disrupts circadian rhythms and alters sensitivity of the SCN neural pacemaker to dissection time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Neuroscience Program, Smith College, Northampton, MA, 01063, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0953-816X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30269396 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2036
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Author Manning, R., Newman, P., Barber, J., Monz, C., Hallo, J., & Lawson, S.
Title Principles for Studying and Managing Natural Quiet and Natural Darkness in National Parks and Other Protected Areas Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The George Wright Forum Abbreviated Journal
Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 350-362
Keywords Conservation; Planning; Regulation
Abstract (up) A substantial body of research on natural quiet and natural darkness in national

parks, and protected areas more broadly, has been reported in the scientific and professional literature in recent years. However, this literature is widely scattered over many academic and professional journals that cover both the natural and social sciences. To help integrate and synthesize this body of work, we surveyed this diverse literature and collected representative examples in a book (Manning et al. 2018). We conclude our book with a series of principles

that we have distilled to help guide park managers to protect natural quiet and natural darkness. This paper presents those principles.

Much of our book focuses on national parks in the United States, and in the remainder of this paper the phrase “the national parks” refers to them. But we feel that the principles we have derived from our review of the scientific and professional literature on natural quiet and natural darkness apply equally well to a variety of parks and protected areas in the United States and elsewhere.

Natural quiet is generally defined as the sounds of nature uninterrupted by human-caused noise, and natural darkness is darkness unaffected by human-caused light. It is important to note that natural quiet and natural darkness do not necessarily mean absolute quiet or darkness, as the natural world often generates sounds of its own (e.g., birds calling, wind blowing,

rivers rushing) and has sources of illumination (e.g., the glow of celestial bodies and the fluorescence of some plants and animals).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2297
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Author Li, Q.F.; Yang, G.X.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, H.
Title A survey of the luminance distribution in the nocturnal environment in Shanghai urban areas and the control of luminance of floodlit buildings Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 185-189
Keywords Lighting
Abstract (up) A survey of the luminance distribution of the nocturnal environment in Shanghai urban areas, which included 11 locations and 16 buildings, was made. The 11 locations could be categorized as commercial, administration, leisure or residential. The average environmental luminance of these was recorded. The authors identified the effects of excessive exterior lighting. The luminance was measured and subjective appraisals made of 16 buildings. The writers have developed an empirical formula for arriving at the brightness level rating for floodlit buildings and recommended corresponding working ranges of luminance.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2715
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Author L.Imhoff, M.; Lawrence, W.T.; Stutzer, D.C.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS “City Lights” satellite data to map urban area Type Journal Article
Year 1997 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 361-370
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (up) A Tresholding technique was used to convert a prototype “city lights” data set from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAAINGDC) into a map of “urban areas” for the continental United States. Thresholding was required to adapt the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSPIOLS)-based NGDC data set into an urban map because the values reported in the prototype represent a cumulative percentage lighted for each pixel extracted from hundreds of nighttime cloud screened orbits, rather than any suitable land-cover classification. The cumulative percentage lighted data could not be used alone because the very high gain of the OLS nighttime photomultiplier configuration can. lead to a pixel (2.7X2.7 km) appearing “lighted” even with very low intensity, nonurban light sources. We found that a threshold of %89% yielded the best results, removing ephemeral light sources and “blooming” of light onto water when adjacent to cities while still leaving the dense urban core intact. This approach gave very good results when compared with the urban areas as defined by the 1990 U. S. Census; the “urban” area from our analysis being only 5% less than that of the Census. The Census was also used to derive population.- and housing-density statistics for the continent-wide “city lights” analysis; these averaged 1033 persons/km2 and 426 housing units/ king, respectively. The use of a nighttime sensor to determine the location and estimate the density of population based on light sources has proved feasible in this exploratory effort. However, issues concerning the use of census data as a benchmark for evaluating the accuracy of remotely sensed imagery are discussed, and potential improvements in the sensor regarding spatial resolution, instrument gain, and pointing accuracy are addressed.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2220
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