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Author Ciach, M., & Fröhlich, A. doi  openurl
  Title Ungulates in the city: light pollution and open habitats predict the probability of roe deer occurring in an urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 513–523  
  Keywords Animals; ungulates; Poland; Europe; roe deer; Capreolus capreolus  
  Abstract (up) Although large and medium-sized herbivorous mammals avoid urbanized areas, they have recently begun to colonize towns and cities. In general, ungulates continue to avoid the centres of urban areas, and utilize mainly their thinly built-up outskirts. While extension of urban development is preventing ungulates from penetrating the urban landscape, the influence of noise and light pollution on the occurrence of mammalian herbivores is still poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that habitat availability shapes the distribution of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and artificial lightening discourages them from penetrating the urban landscape. Roe deer was recorded on 37% of randomly selected sample plots (N = 60) located within the city of Kraków (S Poland). The occupied plots contained significantly more open habitats, woodland patches were larger in them, but proximity to rivers, and noise and light pollution were significantly lower. The logistic regression model revealed that an increasing area of open habitats was positively correlated with the probability of roe deer occurring. However, the artificial lighting at night was negatively correlated with the probability of the species occurring: the negative effect of light pollution was mitigated by the greater area of open habitats. Our study highlights the very considerable potential of light pollution as a predictor of the occurrence of large mammals in the urban landscape. We argue that urbanization and the related artificial lighting at night may be a factor preventing ungulates from penetrating potentially suitable habitats in urban areas.  
  Address Department of Forest Biodiversity, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Poland; michal.ciach(at)ur.krakow.pl  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2305  
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Author Kernbach, M.E.; Newhouse, D.J.; Miller, J.M.; Hall, R.J.; Gibbons, J.; Oberstaller, J.; Selechnik, D.; Jiang, R.H.Y.; Unnasch, T.R.; Balakrishnan, C.N.; Martin, L.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution increases West Nile virus competence of a ubiquitous passerine reservoir species Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 286 Issue 1907 Pages 20191051  
  Keywords Animals; Human Health; anthropogenic; ecoimmunology; host competence; light pollution; reservoir host  
  Abstract (up) Among the many anthropogenic changes that impact humans and wildlife, one of the most pervasive but least understood is light pollution. Although detrimental physiological and behavioural effects resulting from exposure to light at night are widely appreciated, the impacts of light pollution on infectious disease risk have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that artificial light at night (ALAN) extends the infectious-to-vector period of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an urban-dwelling avian reservoir host of West Nile virus (WNV). Sparrows exposed to ALAN maintained transmissible viral titres for 2 days longer than controls but did not experience greater WNV-induced mortality during this window. Transcriptionally, ALAN altered the expression of gene regulatory networks including key hubs (OASL, PLBD1 and TRAP1) and effector genes known to affect WNV dissemination (SOCS). Despite mounting anti-viral immune responses earlier, transcriptomic signatures indicated that ALAN-exposed individuals probably experienced pathogen-induced damage and immunopathology, potentially due to evasion of immune effectors. A simple mathematical modelling exercise indicated that ALAN-induced increases of host infectious-to-vector period could increase WNV outbreak potential by approximately 41%. ALAN probably affects other host and vector traits relevant to transmission, and additional research is needed to advise the management of zoonotic diseases in light-polluted areas.  
  Address Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA  
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  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:31337318; PMCID:PMC6661335 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2611  
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Author Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting up the nighttime Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 362 Issue 6416 Pages 744-746  
  Keywords Commentary  
  Abstract (up) Among the most visually compelling images of the whole Earth have been those created using data obtained at night by astronauts or from satellites. The proliferation in use of electric lighting—including from industrial, commercial, municipal, and domestic sources—is striking. It sketches the spatial distribution of much of the human population, outlining a substantial proportion of the world's coastline, highlighting a multitude of towns and cities, and drawing the major highways that connect them. The data embodied in these nighttime images have been used to estimate and map levels of energy use, urbanization, and economic activity. They have also been key in focusing attention on the environmental impacts of the artificial light at night itself. Explicit steps need to be taken to limit these impacts, which vary according to the intensity, spectrum, spatial extent, and temporal dynamics of this lighting.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:30442788 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2058  
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Author Rosewater, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cost Statistics of Public Electric Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 1893 Publication Publications of the American Statistical Association Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue 21 Pages 293-303  
  Keywords Economics  
  Abstract (up) Among the various papers published upon the subject of municipial control of public electric lighting the showing made by the statistics of cost is always an important factor. Whatever be the point of view of the writers, they seem to present their own figures and yet to arrive at essentially inconsistent results. What I propose to do here, then, is simply to touch upon a few of the limitations which must be borne in mind by anyone who wishes to give these statistics their due scientific weight.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2474  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Wallner, S.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An asymptotic formula for skyglow modelling over a large territory Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 485 Issue 2 Pages 2214-2224  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract (up) An analytical framework to predict skyglow due to distant sources is presented, which can be applied to model sky brightness from the zenith toward the horizon along a vertical plane crossing the hemisphere in the azimuthal position of a light source. Although various powerful algorithms have been developed over the last few decades, the time needed for calculation grows exponentially with increasing size of the modelling domain. This is one of the key issues in skyglow computations, because the numerical accuracy improves only slowly as the modelling domain extends. We treat the problem theoretically, by introducing an analytical formula that is well-suited for light sources located at intermediate and long distances from an observation point and allows tremendous time savings in numerical analyses, while keeping the error at a low level. Field experiments carried out in Eastern Austria provided a unique opportunity to validate the model using real-sky luminance data. The fact that the theoretical model allows the prediction of sky luminance within an acceptable error tolerance is not only in line with the experimental data, but also provides new means of remote characterization of light emissions from artificial sources. The method is particularly attractive for rapid and simple retrieval of the amount of light escaping upwards from the dominant light sources surrounding the observation point. We expect that the method can advance the numerical modelling of skyglow substantially, because it allows real-time computations for very large territories.  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2258  
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