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Author Shima, J.S.; Swearer, S.E.
Title Moonlight enhances growth in larval fish Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Moonlight mediates trophic interactions and shapes the evolution of life-history strategies for nocturnal organisms. Reproductive cycles and important life-history transitions for many marine organisms coincide with moon phases, but few studies consider the effects of moonlight on pelagic larvae at sea. We evaluated effects of moonlight on growth of pelagic larvae of a temperate reef fish using 'master chronologies' of larval growth constructed from age-independent daily increment widths recorded in otoliths of 321 individuals. We found that daily growth rates of fish larvae were enhanced by lunar illumination after controlling for the positive influence of temperature and the negative influence of cloud cover. Collectively, these results indicate that moonlight enhances growth rates of larval fish. This pattern is likely the result of moonlight's combined effects on foraging efficiency and suppression of diel migrations of mesopelagic predators, and has the potential to drive evolution of marine life histories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address (down) School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30422325 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2059
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Author Zeale, M.R.K.; Stone, E.L.; Zeale, E.; Browne, W.J.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.
Title Experimentally manipulating light spectra reveals the importance of dark corridors for commuting bats Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract The rapid global spread of artificial light at night is causing unprecedented disruption to ecosystems. In otherwise dark environments, street lights restrict the use of major flight routes by some bats, including the threatened lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros, and may disrupt foraging. Using radio tracking, we examined the response of individual female R. hipposideros to experimental street lights placed on hedgerows used as major flight routes. Hedgerows were illuminated on one side over four nights using lights with different emission spectra, while the opposite side of the hedge was not illuminated. Automated bat detectors were used to examine changes in overall bat activity by R. hipposideros and other bat species present. R. hipposideros activity reduced significantly under all light types, including red light, challenging a previously held assumption that red light is safe for bats. Despite this, R. hipposideros rapidly adapted to the presence of lights by switching their flight paths to the dark side of the hedgerow, enabling them to reach foraging sites without restriction. Red light had no effect on the activity of the other species present. Slow-flying Myotis spp. avoided orange, white and green light, while more agile Pipistrellus spp. were significantly more abundant at these light types compared to dark controls, most probably in response to accumulations of insect prey. No effect of any light type was found for Nyctalus or Eptesicus spp. Our findings demonstrate that caution must be used when promoting forms of lighting that are thought to be safe for wildlife before they are tested more widely. We argue that it is essential to preserve dark corridors free from light pollution to mitigate the impacts of artificial light at night on bat activity and movements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address (down) School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30288876 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2021
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Author Sullivan, S.M.P.; Hossler, K.; Meyer, L.A.
Title Artificial lighting at night alters aquatic-riparian invertebrate food webs Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America Abbreviated Journal Ecol Appl
Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages e01821
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract Artificial lighting at night (ALAN) is a global phenomenon that can be detrimental to organisms at individual and population levels, yet potential consequences for communities and ecosystem functions are less resolved. Riparian systems may be particularly vulnerable to ALAN. We investigated the impacts of ALAN on invertebrate community composition and food web characteristics for linked aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems. We focused on food chain length (FCL), a central property of ecological communities that can influence their structure, function, and stability; and the contribution of aquatically derived energy (i.e., nutritional subsidies originating from stream periphyton). We collected terrestrial arthropods and emergent aquatic insects from a suite of stream and wetland sites in Columbus, Ohio, USA. Stable isotopes of carbon ((13) C) and nitrogen ((15) N) were used to infer FCL and contribution of aquatically derived energy. We found that moderate-to-high levels of ALAN altered invertebrate community composition, favoring primarily predators and detritivores. Impacts of ALAN, however, were very taxon specific as illustrated, for example, by the negative impact of ALAN on the abundance of orb-web spiders belonging to the families Tetragnathidae and Araneidae: key invertebrate riparian predators. Most notably, we observed decreases in both invertebrate FCL and reliance on aquatically derived energy under ALAN (although aquatic energetic contributions appeared to increase again at higher levels of ALAN), in addition to shifts in the timing of reciprocal nutritional subsidies. Our study demonstrates that ALAN can alter the flows of energy between aquatic and terrestrial systems, thereby representing an environmental perturbation that can cross ecosystem boundaries. Given projections for global increases in ALAN, both in terms of coverage and intensity, these results have broad implications for stream ecosystem structure and function.
Address (down) Schiermeier Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, School of Environment & Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30566269 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2150
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Author Lystrup, D.E.
Title The Dark Side of the Light: Rachel Carson, Light Pollution, and a Case for Federal Regulation Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Jurimetrics Abbreviated Journal Jurimetrics
Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 505-528
Keywords Society; law; light pollution; regulation; environmentalism
Abstract This comment explores the negative effects of light pollution and considers whether current levels of artificial light at night (LAN) warrant federal control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This study first identifies the negative effects of light pollution on human health and the environment, treatment of which aligns with the mission statement of the EPA. Light pollution comprises both a private and a public nuisance. Next, this comment assesses the effectiveness of the common law approach, local government, state government, and federal control over light pollution in this context to determine which form of governance is most effective. Then, EPA involvement through federal and state implemented plans, as well as federal regulation of manufacturing is investigated. Last, this comment considers the necessity of private action through an emerging legal reform called new governance, which emphasizes public-private approaches. The negative effects of light pollution on human health and the environment could eventually lead the EPA to assert control over the regulation of light pollution, but under the current presidential administration this is highly unlikely. The predicted lack of government action leads me to call for nongovernment organizations (NGOs) to step in and take action to privately regulate light pollution and mitigate its negative effects through certification regimes, insurance premium incentives, and corporate social responsibility until government exerts regulatory control.
Address (down) Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, Arizona State University, MC 9520 Arizona State University 111 E. Taylor Street Phoenix, AZ 85004-4467 USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Bar Association Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1995
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Author Marchant, P.; Hale, J.D.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Does changing to brighter road lighting improve road safety? Multilevel longitudinal analysis of road traffic collision frequency during the relighting of a UK city Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; traffic safety; Roadway lighting; road safety; road traffic collisions; United Kingdom
Abstract Background A step change in the night environment is taking place, with the large-scale installation of bright, broad-spectrum road lighting such as white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One justification for this is a reduction in road traffic collisions (RTCs). This study aimed to estimate the effect of new lighting on personal injury RTCs within a large UK city.

Methods We analysed a 9-year time series of weekly RTC personal injury counts in 132 areas of the city using multilevel modelling. The RTC rate over a full 24-hour period was the primary outcome; darkness and daylight RTC rates were secondary. The background change in RTC rate was separated from the change associated with the number of newly installed bright lamps by including a polynomial underlying time trend for the logarithm of the mean number of collisions per week for each area. The study was based on a rigorous, predesigned and archived protocol.

Results Within-area coefficients for the broad lighting effect were positive; as the number of bright lamps in an area increased, so did the RTC rate. The estimate for the increase in the within-area 24-hour RTC rate is 11% (95% CI 2% to 20%). The estimate of darkness-only RTCs is 16% (95% CI 2% to 32%). If the effect of lighting on darkness RTC rate is adjusted by that for daylight, one obtains 4% (95% CI −12% to +23%).

Conclusion No evidence was found for bright lamps leading to an improvement in road safety in any of the analyses. For this city, introducing brighter road lighting may have compromised safety rather than reducing harm.
Address (down) Room 221, Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK; p.marchant(at) leedsbeckett.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BML Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2835
Permanent link to this record