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Author (down) Yue, F.; Xia, K.; Wei, L.; Xing, L.; Wu, S.; Shi, Y.; Man, L.S.; Shui, G.; Xiang, X.; Russell, R.; Zhang, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of constant light exposure on sphingolipidomics and progression of NASH in high‐fat‐fed rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Abbreviated Journal J Gastroenterol Hepatol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; apoptosis; ceramide; light pollution; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; sphingolipids  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIM: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health concern worldwide. With the progression of urbanization, light pollution is becoming an inevitable risk factor for NAFLD. However, the role of light pollution on NAFLD is insufficiently understood, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study explored effects of constant light exposure on NAFLD and elucidated its related mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty-two male SD rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8 each): 1) rats on a normal diet exposed to standard light-dark cycle (ND-LD); 2) rats on a normal diet exposed to constant light (ND-LL); 3) rats on a high fat diet exposed to standard light-dark cycle (HFD-LD); 4) and rats on a high fat diet exposed to constant light (HFD-LL). After 12 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed and pathophysiological assessments were performed. Targeted lipidomics was used to measure sphingolipids, including ceramides, glucosylceramides and lactosylceramides, sphingomyelins and sphingosine-1-phosphates in plasma and liver tissues. RESULTS: In normal chow rats, constant light exposure led to glucose abnormalities and dyslipidemia. In high-fat fed rats, constant light exposure exacerbated glucose abnormalities, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammation and aggravated steatohepatitis. Compared to HFD-LD rats, HFD-LL had decreased plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate and elevated liver concentrations of total ceramides and specific ceramide species (ceramide d18:0/24:0, ceramide d18:1/22:0, ceramide d18:1/24:0 and ceramide d18:1/24:1), and which were associated with increased hepatocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Constant light exposure causes dysregulation of sphingolipids and promotes steatohepatitis in high-fat fed rats.  
  Address Department of Endocrinology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0815-9319 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32027419 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2829  
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Author (down) Yuan, X.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.; Zhou, J.; Chen, Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Filtering the NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Improved Detection of Settlements in Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 24 Pages 3002  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Observing and understanding changes in Africa is a hotspot in global ecological environmental research since the early 1970s. As possible causes of environmental degradation, frequent droughts and human activities attracted wide attention. Remote sensing of nighttime light provides an effective way to map human activities and assess their intensity. To identify settlements more effectively, this study focused on nighttime light in the northern Equatorial Africa and Sahel settlements to propose a new method, namely, the patches filtering method (PFM) to identify nighttime lights related to settlements from the National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) monthly nighttime light data by separating signal components induced by biomass burning, thereby generating a new annual image in 2016. The results show that PFM is useful for improving the quality of NPP-VIIRS monthly nighttime light data. Settlement lights were effectively separated from biomass burning lights, in addition to capturing the seasonality of biomass burning. We show that the new 2016 nighttime light image can very effectively identify even small settlements, notwithstanding their fragmentation and unstable power supply. We compared the image with earlier NPP-VIIRS annual nighttime light data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI) for 2016 and the Sentinel-2 prototype Land Cover 20 m 2016 map of Africa released by the European Space Agency (ESA-S2-AFRICA-LC20). We found that the new annual nighttime light data performed best among the three datasets in capturing settlements, with a high recognition rate of 61.8%, and absolute superiority for settlements of 2.5 square kilometers or less. This shows that the method separates biomass burning signals very effectively, while retaining the relatively stable, although dim, lights of small settlements. The new 2016 annual image demonstrates good performance in identifying human settlements in sparsely populated areas toward a better understanding of human activities.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2890  
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Author (down) Youssef, M. url  openurl
  Title Role Of Artificial Lighting In Emphasizing The Entrance Approaches Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Architecture and Planning Journal Abbreviated Journal APJ  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Architecture  
  Abstract Building's entrance is metaphorically a threshold between two realms, the first is an outdoor exposed to climatic change, hazards, and environmental factors, while the second is controlled, monitored, and determined to certain functions. It plays an important role in enriching users' experience. Moreover, it is the first impression a visitor takes to evaluate a whole building. Architecturally, the entrance is a very special part in the elevation, distinguished and emphasized by different design approaches. One of these approaches is using lighting. There is a direct connection between recognition of a space and light assimilation in it. From sunset to dawn, the artificial lighting plays a role in drawing attention to texture, colours, and forms of external elevations, which supports architecture to achieve its purpose. This paper sheds the light on the problem of architects' failure to manage an entrance perception due to insufficient light integration, over illumination, or weak transition from space to another. Many architects consider the entrance as a challenging task, because they believe that it has a direct impact on visitors' perception. This paper, therefore, aims to propose design methods to emphasize the entrance of buildings at night through using the proper artificial lighting. To achieve this aim, the paper used a scientific methodology, based on tracing literature review about design of entrances, investigating ideas of entrances' emphasis, and then analysing four case studies trying to identify the different design approaches of their entrances and how the location, direction, and intensity of illumination became a part of their nocturnal architectural elevation. As a conclusion, techniques of lighting entrances contribute in perceiving architecture’s true purpose and raise the aesthetic dimension of the building at night.  
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  ISSN 2079-4096 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3280  
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Author (down) Youngstedt, S.D.; Elliott, J.A.; Kripke, D.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human Circadian Phase-Response Curves for Exercise Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol  
  Volume 597 Issue 8 Pages 2253-2268  
  Keywords Human Health; Circadian Rhythm; Exercise  
  Abstract KEY POINTS: Exercise elicits circadian phase-shifting effects, but additional information is needed. The phase-response curve describing the magnitude and direction of circadian rhythm phase shifts depending on the time of the zeigeber (time cue) stimulus is the most fundamental chronobiological tool for alleviating circadian misalignment and related morbidity. 51 older and 48 young adults followed a circadian rhythms measurement protocol for up to 5.5 days, and performed 1 h of moderate treadmill exercise for 3 consecutive days at one of 8 times of day/night. Temporal changes in the phase of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) were measured from evening onset, cosine acrophase, morning offset, and duration of excretion, establishing significant PRCs for aMT6 onset and acrophase with large phase delays from 7-10 PM and large phase advances at both 7 AM and 1-4 PM. Along with known synergism with bright light, the above PRCs with a second phase advance region (afternoon) could support both practical and clinical applications. ABSTRACT: Although bright light is regarded as the primary circadian zeitgeber, its limitations support exploring alternative zeitgebers. Exercise elicits significant circadian phase-shifting effects, but fundamental information regarding these effects is needed. The primary aim of this study was to establish phase-response curves (PRC) documenting the size and direction of phase shifts in relation to the circadian time of exercise. Aerobically fit older (n = 51, 59-75 y) and young adults (n = 48, 18-30 y) followed a 90-min laboratory ultra-short sleep wake cycle (60 min wake/30 min sleep) for up to 5 (1/2) days. At the same clock time on three consecutive days, each participant performed 60 min of moderate treadmill exercise (65-75% of heart rate reserve) at one of 8 times of day/night. To describe PRCs, phase shifts were measured for the cosine-fitted acrophase of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), as well as for the evening rise, morning decline, and change in duration of aMT6s excretion. Significant PRCs were found for aMT6s acrophase, onset and duration, with peak phase advances corresponding to clock times of 7 AM and 1PM-4PM, delays from 7 PM-10 PM, and minimal shifts around 4 PM and 2 AM. There were no significant age or sex differences. The amplitudes of the aMT6s onset and acrophase PRCs are comparable to expectations for bright light of equal duration. The phase advance to afternoon exercise and the exercise-induced PRC for change in aMT6s duration are novel findings. The results support further research exploring additive phase shifting effects of bright light and exercise and health benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30784068 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2230  
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Author (down) Young, L. C., VanderWerf, E. A., McKown M., Roberts, P., Schlueter, J., Vorsino, A., & Sischo, D. doi  openurl
  Title Evidence of Newell’s Shearwaters and Hawaiian Petrels on Oahu, Hawaii Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Condor: Ornithological Applications Abbreviated Journal Condor  
  Volume 121 Issue 1 Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Hawaii’s only 2 endemic seabirds, Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli) and Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), are listed under the United States Endangered Species Act. Threats to both species include light attraction and fallout, collisions with power lines and other structures, predation by invasive animals, and habitat degradation. Both species were assumed to be extirpated from the island of Oahu despite limited survey effort. We used survey data from Kauai (both species) and Maui (Hawaiian Petrel only) to model suitable habitat and light conditions. We then projected this model onto Oahu to identify potential survey sites. From April to September of 2016–2017, we deployed automated acoustic recording units at 13 potentially suitable sites across Oahu. We detected Newell’s Shearwaters at 2 sites; one on the leeward slopes of Mount Kaala in the Waianae Mountains and another at Poamoho in the Koolau Mountains. We detected Hawaiian Petrels at one location on the windward slope of Mount Kaala. All 3 sites were in nearly intact native forest with steep slopes. The frequency of detections at these sites suggests that both species are regularly prospecting on Oahu and potentially could be breeding there. If they are breeding, these individuals could represent missing links in the population connectivity of both species among islands. Protecting any remnant breeding populations would be of high conservation value given their recent population declines.  
  Address Pacific Rim Conservation, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2308  
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