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Author (down) Walker, W.H. 2nd; Borniger, J.C.; Gaudier-Diaz, M.M.; Hecmarie Melendez-Fernandez, O.; Pascoe, J.L.; Courtney DeVries, A.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute exposure to low-level light at night is sufficient to induce neurological changes and depressive-like behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Molecular Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Mol Psychiatry  
  Volume Issue Pages s41380  
  Keywords Animals; mouse models; mood disorders; Human Health  
  Abstract The advent and wide-spread adoption of electric lighting over the past century has profoundly affected the circadian organization of physiology and behavior for many individuals in industrialized nations; electric lighting in homes, work environments, and public areas have extended daytime activities into the evening, thus, increasing night-time exposure to light. Although initially assumed to be innocuous, chronic exposure to light at night (LAN) is now associated with increased incidence of cancer, metabolic disorders, and affective problems in humans. However, little is known about potential acute effects of LAN. To determine whether acute exposure to low-level LAN alters brain function, adult male, and female mice were housed in either light days and dark nights (LD; 14 h of 150 lux:10 h of 0 lux) or light days and low level light at night (LAN; 14 h of 150 lux:10 h of 5 lux). Mice exposed to LAN on three consecutive nights increased depressive-like responses compared to mice housed in dark nights. In addition, female mice exposed to LAN increased central tendency in the open field. LAN was associated with reduced hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in both male and female mice, as well as increased VEGFR1 and interleukin-1beta mRNA expression in females, and reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in males. Further, LAN significantly altered circadian rhythms (activity and temperature) and circadian gene expression in female and male mice, respectively. Altogether, this study demonstrates that acute exposure to LAN alters brain physiology and can be detrimental to well-being in otherwise healthy individuals.  
  Address Department of Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1359-4184 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31138889; PMCID:PMC6881534 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2768  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Walker II, W.H.; Meléndez‐Fernández, O.H.; Nelson, R.J.; Reiter, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Global climate change and invariable photoperiods: A mismatch that jeopardizes animal fitness Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 9 Issue 17 Pages 10044-10054  
  Keywords Animals; Review; Photoperiod  
  Abstract The Earth's surface temperature is rising, and precipitation patterns throughout the Earth are changing; the source of these shifts is likely anthropogenic in nature. Alterations in temperature and precipitation have obvious direct and indirect effects on both plants and animals. Notably, changes in temperature and precipitation alone can have both advantageous and detrimental consequences depending on the species. Typically, production of offspring is timed to coincide with optimal food availability; thus, individuals of many species display annual rhythms of reproductive function. Because it requires substantial time to establish or re‐establish reproductive function, individuals cannot depend on the arrival of seasonal food availability to begin breeding; thus, mechanisms have evolved in many plants and animals to monitor and respond to day length in order to anticipate seasonal changes in the environment. Over evolutionary time, there has been precise fine‐tuning of critical photoperiod and onset/offset of seasonal adaptations. Climate change has provoked changes in the availability of insects and plants which shifts the timing of optimal reproduction. However, adaptations to the stable photoperiod may be insufficiently plastic to allow a shift in the seasonal timing of bird and mammal breeding. Coupled with the effects of light pollution which prevents these species from determining day length, climate change presents extreme evolutionary pressure that can result in severe deleterious consequences for individual species reproduction and survival. This review describes the effects of climate change on plants and animals, defines photoperiod and the physiological events it regulates, and addresses the consequences of global climate change and a stable photoperiod.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; William.Walker2(at)hsc.wvu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2619  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Walbeek, T.J.; Harrison, E.M.; Soler, R.R.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Enhanced Circadian Entrainment in Mice and Its Utility under Human Shiftwork Schedules Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Clocks & Sleep Abbreviated Journal Clocks & Sleep  
  Volume 1 Issue 3 Pages 394-413  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The circadian system is generally considered to be incapable of adjusting to rapid changes in sleep/work demands. In shiftworkers this leads to chronic circadian disruption and sleep loss, which together predict underperformance at work and negative health consequences. Two distinct experimental protocols have been proposed to increase circadian flexibility in rodents using dim light at night: rhythm bifurcation and T-cycle (i.e., day length) entrainment. Successful translation of such protocols to human shiftworkers could facilitate alignment of internal time with external demands. To assess entrainment flexibility following bifurcation and exposure to T-cycles, mice in Study 1 were repeatedly phase-shifted. Mice from experimental conditions rapidly phase-shifted their activity, while control mice showed expected transient misalignment. In Study 2 and 3, mice followed a several weeks-long intervention designed to model a modified DuPont or Continental shiftwork schedule, respectively. For both schedules, bifurcation and nocturnal dim lighting reduced circadian misalignment. Together, these studies demonstrate proof of concept that mammalian circadian systems can be rendered sufficiently flexible to adapt to multiple, rapidly changing shiftwork schedules. Flexible adaptation to exotic light-dark cycles likely relies on entrainment mechanisms that are distinct from traditional entrainment.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2624-5175 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2661  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Wakil, K., Naeem, M. A., Anjum, G. A., Waheed, A., Thaheem, M. J., ul Hussnain, M. Q., & Nawaz, R. url  openurl
  Title A Hybrid Tool for Visual Pollution Assessment in Urban Environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages 1-16  
  Keywords Planning  
  Abstract With increasing focus on more nuanced aspects of quality of life, the phenomenon of urban visual pollution has been progressively gaining attention from researchers and policy makers, especially in the developed world. However, the subjectivity and complexity of assessing visual pollution in urban settings remain a challenge, especially given the lack of robust and reliable methods for quantification of visual pollution. This paper presents a novel systematic approach for the development of a robust Visual Pollution Assessment (VPA) tool. A key feature of our methodology is explicit and systematic incorporation of expert and public opinion for listing and ranking Visual Pollution Objects (VPOs). Moreover, our methodology deploys established empirical complex decision-making techniques to address the challenge of subjectivity in weighting the impact of individual VPOs. The resultant VPA tool uses close-ended options to capture the presence and characteristics of various VPOs on a given node. Based on these inputs, it calculates a point based visual pollution scorecard for the observation point. The performance of the VPA tool has been extensively tested and verified at various locations in Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such tool, both in terms of quantitative robustness and broad coverage of VPOs. Our VPA tool will help regulators in assessing and charting visual pollution in a consistent and objective manner. It will also help policy makers by providing an empirical basis for gathering evidence; hence facilitating evidence-based and evidence-driven policy strategies, which are likely to have significant impact, especially in the developing countries.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2344  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (down) Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.; Minderman, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the attractiveness of broad-spectrum street lights to aerial nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 714-722  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Sodium street lights, dominated by long wavelengths of light, are being replaced by broad‐spectrum, white lights globally, in particular light‐emitting diodes (LEDs). These white lights typically require less energy to operate and are therefore considered “eco‐friendly”. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts white lights may have upon local wildlife populations.

We compared insect attraction to orange (high‐pressure sodium, HPS) and white (metal halide, MH and LED) street lights experimentally using portable street lights and custom‐made flight intercept traps.

Significantly more (greater than five times as many) insects were attracted to white MH street lights than white (4,250 K) LED and HPS lights. There was no statistical difference in the numbers of insects attracted to LED and HPS lights for most taxa caught. However, rarefaction shows a greater diversity of insects caught at LED than HPS lights.

Policy implications. With the current, large‐scale conversion to white light‐emitting diode (LED) lighting, our results give insight into how changes to street light technology may affect wildlife populations and communities. We recommend avoiding metal halide light installations as they attract many more insects than competing technologies. We highlight the need to tailor LED lighting to prevent disturbances across multiple insect taxa.
 
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2224  
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