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Author (up) Cho, M., Park, R., Yoon, J., Choi, Y., Jeong, J. I., Labzovskii, L., Fu, J. S., Huang, K., Jeong, S., & Kim, B. url  openurl
  Title A missing component of Arctic warming: Black carbon from gas flaring Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Research Letters Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Gas flaring during oil extraction over the Arctic region is the primary source of warming-inducing aerosols (e.g., black carbon (BC)) with a strong potential to affect regional climate change. Despite continual BC emissions near the Arctic Ocean via gas flaring, the climatic impacts of BC related to gas flaring remain uncertain. Here, we present simulations of potential gas flaring using an earth system model with comprehensive aerosol physics that to show that increases in BC from gas flaring can potentially explain a significant fraction of Arctic warming. BC emissions from gas flaring over high latitudes contribute to locally confined warming over the source region, especially during the Arctic spring through BC-induced local albedo reduction. This local warming invokes remote and temporally lagging sea-ice melting feedback processes over the Arctic Ocean during winter. Our findings imply that a regional change in anthropogenic aerosol forcing is capable of changing Arctic temperatures in regions far from the aerosol source via time-lagged, sea-ice-related Arctic physical processes. We suggest that both energy consumption and production processes can increase Arctic warming.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2645  
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Author (up) Choi, S. J., Park, H. R. & Joo, E. Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Light on Daytime Sleep in 12 Hours Night Shift Workers: A Field Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Korean Sleep Research Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 26-35  
  Keywords Human Health; Sleep  
  Abstract Objectives: Night shift workers suffer from sleep and daytime disturbances due to circadian misalignment. To investigate the role of environmental light in daytime sleep following 12 h-night shift work. Methods: we enrolled 12 h-shift female nurses working at one university-affiliated hospital (n=10, mean age 26.6 years, shift work duration 3.8 years). This is a cross-over study to compare sleep between under light exposure (30 lux) and in the dark (<5 lux) following 12 h-night duty. Two sessions of experiments were underwent and the interval between sessions was about a month. Psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) had performed on awakening from sleep at each session and sleep-wake pattern had been monitored by actigraphy throughout the study period. Daytime sleep was also compared with night sleep of age-and gender matched daytime workers (n=10). Results: Sleep parameters and PVT scores were not different between two light conditions. Activities during sleep seemed to be more abundant under 30 lux condition than in the dark, which was not significant. Compared to night sleep, daytime sleep of shift workers was different in terms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Three shift workers showed sleep onset REM sleep and first REM sleep period was the longest during daytime sleep. Conclusions: Unexpectedly, daytime sleep of 12 h night shift workers was well-maintained regardless of light exposure. Early occurrence of REM sleep and shorter sleep latency during daytime sleep suggest that shift workers meet with misalignment of circadian rhythm as well as increased homeostatic sleep pressure drive.  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Korean Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2635  
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Author (up) Christie, S.; Vincent, A.D.; Li, H.; Frisby, C.L.; Kentish, S.J.; O'Rielly, R.; Wittert, G.A.; Page, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A rotating light cycle promotes weight gain and hepatic lipid storage in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Processes involved in regulation of energy balance and intermediary metabolism are aligned to the light-dark cycle. Shift-work and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity disrupt circadian rhythmicity and are associated with increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine the effect of simulating shift work on hepatic lipid accumulation in lean and HFD-mice. C57BL/6 mice fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 4wks were further allocated to a normal light (NL)-cycle (lights on:0600-1800hr) or rotating light (RL)-cycle (3-days NL and 4-days reversed (lights on:1800-0600hr) repeated) for 8wks. Tissue was collected every 3hrs beginning at 0600hr. HFD-mice gained more weight than SLD-mice, and RL-mice gained more weight than NL-mice. SLD-NL and HFD-NL mice, but not RL-mice, were more active, had higher respiratory quotients and consumed/expended more energy during the dark phase compared to the light phase. Blood glucose and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were elevated in HFD and SLD-RL compared to SLD-NL mice. Hepatic glycogen was elevated in HFD compared to SLD-mice. Hepatic triglycerides were elevated in SLD-RL and HFD-mice compared to SLD-NL. Circadian rhythmicity of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) mRNA was phase shifted in SLD-RL and HFD-NL and lost in HFD-RL mice. Hepatic ACACA protein was reduced in SLD-RL and HFD-mice compared to SLD-NL mice. Hepatic adipose triglyceride lipase was elevated in HFD-NL compared to SLD-NL but lower in RL-mice compared to NL-mice irrespective of diet. -Conclusion: A RL-cycle model of shift-work promotes weight gain and hepatic lipid storage even in lean conditions.  
  Address Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0193-1857 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30188750 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2123  
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Author (up) Ciach, M., & Fröhlich, A. doi  openurl
  Title Ungulates in the city: light pollution and open habitats predict the probability of roe deer occurring in an urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 513–523  
  Keywords Animals; ungulates; Poland; Europe; roe deer; Capreolus capreolus  
  Abstract Although large and medium-sized herbivorous mammals avoid urbanized areas, they have recently begun to colonize towns and cities. In general, ungulates continue to avoid the centres of urban areas, and utilize mainly their thinly built-up outskirts. While extension of urban development is preventing ungulates from penetrating the urban landscape, the influence of noise and light pollution on the occurrence of mammalian herbivores is still poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that habitat availability shapes the distribution of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and artificial lightening discourages them from penetrating the urban landscape. Roe deer was recorded on 37% of randomly selected sample plots (N = 60) located within the city of Kraków (S Poland). The occupied plots contained significantly more open habitats, woodland patches were larger in them, but proximity to rivers, and noise and light pollution were significantly lower. The logistic regression model revealed that an increasing area of open habitats was positively correlated with the probability of roe deer occurring. However, the artificial lighting at night was negatively correlated with the probability of the species occurring: the negative effect of light pollution was mitigated by the greater area of open habitats. Our study highlights the very considerable potential of light pollution as a predictor of the occurrence of large mammals in the urban landscape. We argue that urbanization and the related artificial lighting at night may be a factor preventing ungulates from penetrating potentially suitable habitats in urban areas.  
  Address Department of Forest Biodiversity, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Poland; michal.ciach(at)ur.krakow.pl  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2305  
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Author (up) Ciach, M.; Fröhlich, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Habitat type, food resources, noise and light pollution explain the species composition, abundance and stability of a winter bird assemblage in an urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal Urban Ecosyst  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 547-559  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract At present, urban areas cover almost 3% of the Earth’s terrestrial area, and this proportion is constantly increasing. Although urbanization leads to a decline in biodiversity, at the same time it creates extensive habitats that are exploited by an assemblage of organisms, including birds. The species composition and density of birds nesting in towns and cities are determined by the types of buildings, the structure and maturity of urban greenery, and habitat diversity. In contrast, the habitat traits shaping the community of birds wintering in urban areas are not known. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of habitat structure, food resources and the urban effects (pollution, noise, artificial light) on an assemblage of birds overwintering in an urban area. It was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in the city of Kraków (southern Poland), on 56 randomly chosen sample plots, in which the composition, density and interseasonal similarity of bird assemblage were assessed with line transect method. A total of 64 bird species (mean = 17.7 ± 4.9 SD species/plot) was recorded. The mean density was 89.6 ind./km ±63.3 SD. The most numerous species were Great Tit Parus major, Magpie Pica pica, Blackbird Turdus merula, Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, Rook Corvus frugilegus, Fieldfare Turdus pilaris and House Sparrow Passer domesticus. Noise adversely affected species numbers and density, but artificial light acted positively on the density of birds and their interseasonal stability. The species richness and density of birds were also determined by the number of food sources available (e.g. bird-feeders). In addition, the greater the proportion of open areas, the fewer species were recorded. In contrast, the more urban greenery there was, the greater the density of the entire bird assemblage. Urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, refuse tips) had a positive effect on the interseasonal stabilization of the species composition of wintering birds. The results of this work indicate that the urban effect, i.e. noise and light pollution, apart from purely habitat factors, provide a good explanation for the species richness, density and stability of bird assemblage wintering in urban areas.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1083-8155 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2444  
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