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Author Landis, E.G.; Yang, V.; Brown, D.M.; Pardue, M.T.; Read, S.A.
Title Dim Light Exposure and Myopia in Children Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Abbreviated Journal Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Volume 59 Issue 12 Pages 4804-4811
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Purpose: Experimental myopia in animal models suggests that bright light can influence refractive error and prevent myopia. Additionally, animal research indicates activation of rod pathways and circadian rhythms may influence eye growth. In children, objective measures of personal light exposure, recorded by wearable light sensors, have been used to examine the effects of bright light exposure on myopia. The effect of time spent in a broad range of light intensities on childhood refractive development is not known. This study aims to evaluate dim light exposure in myopia. Methods: We reanalyzed previously published data to investigate differences in dim light exposure across myopic and nonmyopic children from the Role of Outdoor Activity in Myopia (ROAM) study in Queensland, Australia. The amount of time children spent in scotopic (<1-1 lux), mesopic (1-30 lux), indoor photopic (>30-1000 lux), and outdoor photopic (>1000 lux) light over both weekdays and weekends was measured with wearable light sensors. Results: We found significant differences in average daily light exposure between myopic and nonmyopic children. On weekends, myopic children received significantly less scotopic light (P = 0.024) and less outdoor photopic light than nonmyopic children (P < 0.001). In myopic children, more myopic refractive errors were correlated with increased time in mesopic light (R = -0.46, P = 0.002). Conclusions: These findings suggest that in addition to bright light exposure, rod pathways stimulated by dim light exposure could be important to human myopia development. Optimal strategies for preventing myopia with environmental light may include both dim and bright light exposure.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0146-0404 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30347074; PMCID:PMC6181186 Approved no
Call Number (down) NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2097
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Author Stone, T.
Title Re-envisioning the Nocturnal Sublime: On the Ethics and Aesthetics of Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Topoi Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Society
Abstract Grounded in the practical problem of light pollution, this paper examines the aesthetic dimensions of urban and natural darkness, and its impact on how we perceive and evaluate nighttime lighting. It is argued that competing notions of the sublime, manifested through artificial illumination and the natural night sky respectively, reinforce a geographical dualism between cities and wilderness. To challenge this spatial differentiation, recent work in urban-focused environmental ethics, as well as environmental aesthetics, are utilized to envision the moral and aesthetic possibilities of a new urban nocturnal sublime. Through articulating the aspirations and constraints of a new urban nocturnal experience, this paper elucidates the axiological dimensions of light pollution, draws attention to nightscapes as a site of importance for urban-focused (environmental) philosophy, and examines the enduring relevance of the sublime for both the design of nighttime illumination and the appreciation of the night sky.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (down) NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2098
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Author Amavilah, V.H.
Title Artificial nighttime lights and the “real” well-being of nations : “Measuring economic growth from outer space” and welfare from right here on Earth Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Economics and Political Economy Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 209-218
Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing
Abstract GDP remains too much of an imprecise measure of the standard of living. There

is a need for either substitutes or complements. Nighttime lights are a reasonable indicator of the extent, scale, and intensity of socio-economic activities, but a poor measure of national welfare. However, if nighttime lights are understood to constitute externalities, then their effects can be used to adjust measured growth for welfare. From that angle, nighttime lights appear to exert sub-optimal positive externalities in developing countries, and supra-optimal negative externality in developed countries. This means that even if we assume equal growth rates in developing and developed countries, welfare is enhanced by increasing nighttime lights in developing countries and reduced by increasing nighttime lights in developed countries.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (down) NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2099
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Author Kehoe, R.C.; Cruse, D.; Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.; van Veen, F.J.F.
Title Shifting daylength regimes associated with range shifts alter aphid-parasitoid community dynamics Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 17 Pages 8761-8769
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract With climate change leading to poleward range expansion of species, populations are exposed to new daylength regimes along latitudinal gradients. Daylength is a major factor affecting insect life cycles and activity patterns, so a range shift leading to new daylength regimes is likely to affect population dynamics and species interactions; however, the impact of daylength in isolation on ecological communities has not been studied so far. Here, we tested for the direct and indirect effects of two different daylengths on the dynamics of experimental multitrophic insect communities. We compared the community dynamics under “southern” summer conditions of 14.5-hr daylight to “northern” summer conditions of 22-hr daylight. We show that food web dynamics indeed respond to daylength with one aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reaching much lower population sizes at the northern daylength regime compared to under southern conditions. In contrast, in the same communities, another aphid species (Megoura viciae) reached higher population densities under northern conditions. This effect at the aphid level was driven by an indirect effect of daylength causing a change in competitive interaction strengths, with the different aphid species being more competitive at different daylength regimes. Additionally, increasing daylength also increased growth rates in M. viciae making it more competitive under summer long days. As such, the shift in daylength affected aphid population sizes by both direct and indirect effects, propagating through species interactions. However, contrary to expectations, parasitoids were not affected by daylength. Our results demonstrate that range expansion of whole communities due to climate change can indeed change interaction strengths between species within ecological communities with consequences for community dynamics. This study provides the first evidence of daylength affecting community dynamics, which could not be predicted from studying single species separately.
Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Penryn Cornwall UK
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30271543; PMCID:PMC6157684 Approved no
Call Number (down) NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2100
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Author Skandali, C.; Lambiri, Y.S.
Title Optimization of Urban Street Lighting Conditions Focusing On Energy Saving, Safety and Users’ Needs Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Contemporary Urban Affairs Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 112-121
Keywords Lighting; Economics; Planning
Abstract The outdoor lighting constitutes a significant part of the night activities of people in contemporary cities. Nevertheless, in many cases, this may result in the increasing and irrational use of it affecting the users of public areas, the environment and driving safety. The subject of this paper is to extend the discussion on the subject, to provide answers and to suggest methods for the improvement of the existing conditions in urban street lighting through the use of new technologies and smart lighting management systems, with the aim of achieving a smooth relationship between the user’s needs, safety, sustainability, quality of life and energy saving.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (down) NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2101
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