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Author Kehoe, R.C.; Cruse, D.; Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.; van Veen, F.J.F.
Title Shifting daylength regimes associated with range shifts alter aphid-parasitoid community dynamics Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 17 Pages (down) 8761-8769
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract With climate change leading to poleward range expansion of species, populations are exposed to new daylength regimes along latitudinal gradients. Daylength is a major factor affecting insect life cycles and activity patterns, so a range shift leading to new daylength regimes is likely to affect population dynamics and species interactions; however, the impact of daylength in isolation on ecological communities has not been studied so far. Here, we tested for the direct and indirect effects of two different daylengths on the dynamics of experimental multitrophic insect communities. We compared the community dynamics under “southern” summer conditions of 14.5-hr daylight to “northern” summer conditions of 22-hr daylight. We show that food web dynamics indeed respond to daylength with one aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reaching much lower population sizes at the northern daylength regime compared to under southern conditions. In contrast, in the same communities, another aphid species (Megoura viciae) reached higher population densities under northern conditions. This effect at the aphid level was driven by an indirect effect of daylength causing a change in competitive interaction strengths, with the different aphid species being more competitive at different daylength regimes. Additionally, increasing daylength also increased growth rates in M. viciae making it more competitive under summer long days. As such, the shift in daylength affected aphid population sizes by both direct and indirect effects, propagating through species interactions. However, contrary to expectations, parasitoids were not affected by daylength. Our results demonstrate that range expansion of whole communities due to climate change can indeed change interaction strengths between species within ecological communities with consequences for community dynamics. This study provides the first evidence of daylength affecting community dynamics, which could not be predicted from studying single species separately.
Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Penryn Cornwall UK
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ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30271543; PMCID:PMC6157684 Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2100
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Author Portugal, S. J., White, C. R., Frappell, P. B.m Green, J. A., & Butler, P. J.
Title Impacts of “supermoon” events on the physiology of a wild bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages (down) 7974-7984
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract The position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and the Sun gives rise to several predictable cycles, and natural changes in nighttime light intensity are known to cause alterations to physiological processes and behaviors in many animals. The limited research undertaken to date on the physiological responses of animals to the lunar illumination has exclusively focused on the synodic lunar cycle (full moon to full moon, or moon phase) but the moon's orbit—its distance from the Earth—may also be relevant. Every month, the moon moves from apogee, its most distant point from Earth—and then to perigee, its closest point to Earth. Here, we studied wild barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) to investigate the influence of multiple interacting lunar cycles on the physiology of diurnally active animals. Our study, which uses biologging technology to continually monitor body temperature and heart rate for an entire annual cycle, asks whether there is evidence for a physiological response to natural cycles in lunar brightness in wild birds, particularly “supermoon” phenomena, where perigee coincides with a full moon. There was a three‐way interaction between lunar phase, lunar distance, and cloud cover as predictors of nighttime mean body

temperature, such that body temperature was highest on clear nights when the full

moon coincided with perigee moon. Our study is the first to report the physiological responses of wild birds to “supermoon” events; the wild geese responded to the combination of two independent lunar cycles, by significantly increasing their body temperature at night. That wild birds respond to natural fluctuations in nighttime ambient light levels support the documented responses of many species to anthropogenic sources of artificial light, that birds seem unable to override. As most biological systems are arguably organized foremost by light, this suggests that any interactions between lunar cycles and local weather conditions could have significant impacts on the energy budgets of birds.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2628
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.; Videen, G.
Title Night-sky radiometry can revolutionize the characterization of light-pollution sources globally Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 116 Issue 16 Pages (down) 7712-7717
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The city emission function (CEF), describing the angular emission from an entire city as a light source, is one of the key elements in night-sky radiance models. The CEF describes the rate at which skyglow depends on distance and is indispensable in any prediction of light-pollution propagation into nocturnal environments. Nevertheless, the CEF remains virtually unexplored because appropriate retrieval tools have been unavailable until very recently. A CEF has now been obtained from ground-based night-sky observations and establishes an experiment successfully conducted in the field to retrieve the angular emission function for an urban area. The field campaign was conducted near the city of Los Mochis, Mexico, which is well isolated from other cities and thus dominates all light emissions in its vicinity. The experiment has proven that radiometry of a night sky can provide information on the light output pattern of a distant city and allows for systematic, full-area, and cost-efficient CEF monitoring worldwide. A database of CEFs could initiate a completely new phase in light-pollution research, with significant economy and advanced accuracy of night-sky brightness predictions. The experiment and its interpretation represent unique progress in the field and contribute to our fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which direct and reflected uplight interact while forming the CEF.
Address Battlefield Environment Division, Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783
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ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30936314; PMCID:PMC6475415 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2330
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Author Rybnikova, N.A.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Mapping geographical concentrations of economic activities in Europe using light at night (LAN) satellite data Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 35 Issue 22 Pages (down) 7706-7725
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Data on geographical concentrations of economic activities, such as manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail trade, financial services, etc., are important for identifying clusters of economic activities (EAs) and concentrations of forces behind them. However, such data are essentially sparse due to limited reporting by individual countries and administrative entities. For example, at present, Eurostat provides EA data for <50% of all regional subdivisions of the third tier of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS3). Measurements of light at night (LAN), as captured by satellite sensors, are likely to differ in intensity, depending on the source. As a result, LAN levels can become a marker for EAs; the present study attempts to verify this possibility. As the present analysis indicates, the inclusion of LAN intensities in multivariate models (in addition to standard economic and locational variables) helps to explain up to 88.8% of the EA variation, performing especially well for manufacturing, construction, and agriculture (the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2-adjusted) is in the range of 0.754–0.888). The study thus confirms the feasibility of using LAN satellite measurements for reconstructing geographical patterns of EAs, information that may be restricted or is unavailable due to sparse or incomplete reporting.
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ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2664
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Author Lin, J.; Ding, X.; Hong, C.; Pang, Y.; Chen, L.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, X.; Xin, H.; Wang, X.
Title Several biological benefits of the low color temperature light-emitting diodes based normal indoor lighting source Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages (down) 7560
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract Currently, light pollution has become a nonnegligible issue in our daily life. Artificial light sources with high color temperature were deem to be the major pollution source, which could induce several adverse effects on human's health. In our previous research, we have firstly developed an artificial indoor light with low color temperature (1900 K). However, the biological effects of this artificial light on human's health are unclear. Here, four artificial lights (1900 K, 3000 K, 4000 K and 6600 K) were used to evaluate some biological changes in both human (in total 152 person-times) and murine models. Compared with other three high color temperature artificial lights, our lights (1900 K) presented a positive effect on promoting the secreting of melatonin and glutamate, protecting human's eyes, accelerating would healing and hair regeneration. These systematical studies indicated that the proposed low color temperature (1900 K) light could provide several significant benefits in human's daily life.
Address The National Engineering Research Center for Bioengineering Drugs and the Technologies, Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330031, China. wangxiaolei@ncu.edu.cn
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31101840 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2501
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