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Author Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Faraz, M.; Laalpour, S.; Kaveh Ahangar, A.; Eslami, J.; Zarei, S.; Mortazavi, G.; Gheisari, F.; Mortazavi, S.M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to Blue Light Emitted from Smartphones in an Environment with Dim Light at Night Alters the Reaction Time of University Students Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Shiraz E-Medical Journal Abbreviated Journal Shiraz E-Med J  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) e88230  
  Keywords Human Health; Blue light; smartphone; Reaction Time; shift work  
  Abstract Background: Substantial evidence now indicates that exposure to visible light at night can be linked to a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from obesity to cancer. More specifically, it has been shown that exposure to short wavelengths in the blue region at night is associated with adverse health effects, such as sleep problems.

Objectives: This study aimed at investigating if exposure to blue light emitted from common smartphones in an environment with dim light at night alters human reaction time.

Methods: Visual reaction time (VRT) of 267 male and female university students were recorded using a simple blind computer-assisted VRT test, respectively. Volunteer university students, who provided their informed consent were randomly divided to two groups of control (N = 126 students) and intervention (N = 141 students). All participants were asked to go to bed at 23:00. Participants in the intervention group were asked to use their smartphones from 23:00 to 24:00 (watching a natural life documentary movie for 60 minutes), while the control group only stayed in bed under low lighting condition, i.e. dim light. Before starting the experiment and after 60 minutes of smartphone use, reaction time was recorded in both groups.

Results: The mean reaction times in the intervention and the control groups before the experiment (23:00) did not show a statistically difference (P = 0.449). The reaction time in the intervention group significantly increased from 412.64 ± 105.60 msec at 23:00 to 441.66 ± 125.78 msec at 24:00 (P = 0.0368) while in the control group, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean reaction times at 23:00 and 24:00.

Conclusions: To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study, which showed that exposure to blue-rich visible light emitted from widely used smartphones increases visual reaction time, which would eventually result in a delay in human responses to different hazards. These findings indicate that people, such as night shift or on call workers, who need to react to stresses rapidly should avoid using their smartphones in a dim light at night.
 
  Address Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1735-1391 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2534  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Huss, A.; van Wel, L.; Bogaards, L.; Vrijkotte, T.; Wolf, L.; Hoek, G.; Vermeulen, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shedding Some Light in the Dark-A Comparison of Personal Measurements with Satellite-Based Estimates of Exposure to Light at Night among Children in the Netherlands Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 127 Issue 6 Pages (down) 67001  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Exposure to light at night (LAN) can perturb the biological clock and affect sleep and health. Previous epidemiological studies have evaluated LAN levels measured by satellites, but the validity of this measure as a proxy for personal LAN exposure is unclear. In addition, outdoor satellite-measured LAN levels are higher in urban environments, which means that this measure could potentially represent a proxy for other, likely urban, environmental exposures. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated correlations of satellite-assessed LAN with measured bedroom light levels and explored correlations with other environmental exposures, in particular, air pollution, green space, and area-level socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We compared satellite measurements with evening and nighttime bedroom measurements of illuminance (in units of lux) for 256 children, and we evaluated correlations between satellite-based measures and other urban exposures such as air pollution, area-level SEP, and surrounding green space for 3,021 children. RESULTS: Satellite-measured LAN levels (nanowatts per centimeter squared per steradian) were not correlated with measured evening or nighttime lux levels [Spearman correlation coefficients ([Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] to 0.04]. There was a weak correlation with measurements during the darkest time period if parents and their children reported that outdoor light sometimes or usually influenced indoor light levels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). In contrast, satellite-measured LAN levels were correlated with air pollution ([Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]), and surrounding green space ([Formula: see text] for green space within [Formula: see text] of the home). A weak correlation with area-level SEP was also observed ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor satellite-assessed outdoor LAN exposure levels were correlated with urban environmental exposures, but they were not a good proxy for indoor evening or nighttime personal exposure as measured in our study population of 12-y-old children. Studies planning to evaluate potential risks from LAN should consider such modifying factors as curtains and indoor lighting and the use of electronic devices and should include performing indoor or personal measurements to validate any exposure proxies. The moderate-to-strong correlation of outdoor LAN with other environmental exposures should be accounted for in epidemiological investigations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3431.  
  Address 4 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht , Utrecht, Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31157976 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2532  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bijveld, M.M.C.; van Genderen, M.M.; Hoeben, F.P.; Katzin, A.A.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Riemslag, F.C.C.; Kappers, A.M.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of night vision problems in patients with congenital stationary night blindness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages (down) e62927  
  Keywords Vision; Adolescent; Adult; Case-Control Studies; Child; *Dark Adaptation; Electroretinography; Eye Diseases, Hereditary/*physiopathology; Female; Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/*physiopathology; Humans; Light; Male; Middle Aged; Myopia/*physiopathology; Night Blindness/*physiopathology; *Night Vision; *Pattern Recognition, Visual; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Visual Acuity; Visual Fields  
  Abstract Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced) and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent). The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the “Light Lab”. In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the “2D Light Lab” showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight), but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight). Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling.  
  Address Bartimeus Institute for the Visually Impaired, Zeist, The Netherlands. mbijveld@bartimeus.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23658786; PMCID:PMC3643903 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3051  
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Author Kim, H.-S.; Lee, Y.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Correlation Analysis of Image Reproduction and Display Color Temperature Change to Prevent Sleep Disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication IEEE Access Abbreviated Journal IEEE Access  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages (down) 59091-59099  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract This paper aims to determine the effect of the smartphone warm color temperature functionthat relieves display’s HEVL (high-energy visible light and short wavelength series blue light), which isknown to cause suppression of melatonin secretion on actual image reproduction quality. For this study,the author of this paper measured the display based on the color difference in 26 sampling colors. It was foundthat for correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4000 K or less, the color difference rose sharply, centeringaround red and green. In hardware or software, a low CCT was realized by reducing the output centered onblue and green, but in actual color quality, a problem arose in the red and green channels. As far as tonegradation is concerned,1E increased for CCT of 4500 K or less while the accuracy of the shadow detail wasreduced. With regard to color gamut reproduction, for the coverage of sRGB color space, the color gamutbecame narrow for CCT of 5500 K or less, and for volume, the color gamut became narrow sharply for CCTof 4000 K. It was found that the maximum CCT changes to prevent a decline in melatonin secretion at alevel of minimizing the degradation of image quality is 4000–4500 K.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2169-3536 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2500  
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Author Garcia-Saenz, A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Espinosa, A.; Valentin, A.; Aragones, N.; Llorca, J.; Amiano, P.; Martin Sanchez, V.; Guevara, M.; Capelo, R.; Tardon, A.; Peiro-Perez, R.; Jimenez-Moleon, J.J.; Roca-Barcelo, A.; Perez-Gomez, B.; Dierssen-Sotos, T.; Fernandez-Villa, T.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Moreno, V.; Garcia-Perez, J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Pollan, M.; Aube, M.; Kogevinas, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating the Association between Artificial Light-at-Night Exposure and Breast and Prostate Cancer Risk in Spain (MCC-Spain Study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 126 Issue 4 Pages (down) 047011  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm; Female; Humans; Incidence; Light/*adverse effects; Lighting/*adverse effects; Male; Middle Aged; Prostatic Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Risk Factors; Spain/epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase-control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night. METHODS: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008-2013. Indoor ALAN information was obtained through questionnaires. Outdoor ALAN was analyzed using images from the International Space Station (ISS) available for Barcelona and Madrid for 2012-2013, including data of remotely sensed upward light intensity and blue light spectrum information for each geocoded longest residence of each MCC-Spain subject. RESULTS: Among Barcelona and Madrid participants with information on both indoor and outdoor ALAN, exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue light spectrum was associated with breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest tertile, OR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17] and prostate cancer (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03). In contrast, those exposed to the highest versus lowest intensity of outdoor ALAN were more likely to be controls than cases, particularly for prostate cancer. Compared with those who reported sleeping in total darkness, men who slept in “quite illuminated” bedrooms had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.04), whereas women had a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.51). CONCLUSION: Both prostate and breast cancer were associated with high estimated exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue-enriched light spectrum. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1837.  
  Address IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29687979; PMCID:PMC6071739 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3044  
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