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Author Bielli, A.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Doherty, P.D.; Godley, B.J.; Ortiz, C.; Pasara, A.; Wang, J.H.; Mangel, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 108277  
  Keywords Animals; oceans; bycatch; artificial illumination; bycatch reduction technologies  
  Abstract Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) – a visual cue – on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK; bielli.alessandra(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2779  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Owens, A. C. S., Cochard, P., Durrant, J., Farnworth, B., Perkin, E. K., &Seymoure, B. url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution Is a Driver of Insect Declines Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 241 Issue Pages (down) 108259  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Insects around the world are rapidly declining. Concerns over what this loss means for food security and ecological communities have compelled a growing number of researchers to search for the key drivers behind the decline. Habitat loss, pesticide use, invasive species, and climate change all have likely played a role, but we posit here that artificial light at night (ALAN) is another important — but often overlooked — bringer of the insect apocalypse. We first discuss the history and extent of ALAN, and then present evidence that ALAN has led to insect declines through its interference with the development, movement, foraging, and reproductive success of diverse insect species, as well as its positive effect on insectivore predation. We conclude with a discussion of how artificial lights can be tuned to reduce their impacts on vulnerable populations. ALAN is unique among anthropogenic habitat disturbances in that it is fairly easy to ameliorate, and leaves behind no residual effects. Greater recognition of the ways in which ALAN impacts insects can help conservationists reduce or eliminate one of the major drivers of insect declines.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2649  
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Author Mendes, C.P.; Carreira, D.; Pedrosa, F.; Beca, G.; Lautenschlager, L.; Akkawi, P.; Bercê, W.; Ferraz, K.M.P.M.B.; Galetti, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Landscape of human fear in Neotropical rainforest mammals Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 108257  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing; rainforest; Ecology  
  Abstract The landscape of fear has profound effects on the species behavior, with most organisms engaging in risk avoidance behaviors in areas perceived as riskier. Most risk avoidance behaviors, such as temporal avoidance, have severe trade-offs between foraging efficiency and risk reduction. Human activities are able to affect the species landscape of fear, by increasing mortality of individuals (i.e. hunting, roadkill) and by disruption of the clues used by the species to estimate predation risk (e.g. light pollution). In this study, we used an extensive camera-trapping and night-time light satellite imagery to evaluate whether human activities affect the diel activity patterns of 17 species of rainforest dwelling mammals. We found evidence of diel activity shifts in eight of 17 analyzed species, in which five species become 21.6 % more nocturnal and three species become 11.7% more diurnal in high disturbed areas. This activity shifts were observed for both diurnal and nocturnal species. Persecuted species (game and predators) were more susceptible to present activity shifts. Since changes in foraging activity may affect species fitness, the behavior of humans’ avoidance may be another driver of the Anthropocene defaunation.  
  Address Laboratório de Biologia da Conservação – LABIC, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Avenida 24A, 1515, 13506-900, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil; calebepm3(at)hotmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2743  
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Author Cui, H.; Shen, J.; Huang, Y.; Shen, X.; So, C.W.; Pun, C.S.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network in Wuxi, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 107219  
  Keywords skyglow  
  Abstract The rapid development of cities has brought tremendous pressure to astronomical observation, energy security, and the ecosystem. Automatic monitoring of night sky brightness (NSB) can help us to understand its regional differences and time variations of NSB effectively and to investigate the human and natural factors which lead to these changes. In this paper, the construction of Wuxi City night sky brightness monitoring network (WBMN) in China is presented. In addition to introducing the equipment and the installation of the network, a brief analysis of the data obtained from the stations will also be presented. The impact of human activities on the NSB is illustrated through its changes during the Spring Festival (lunar new year) and non-festival nights, and through a comparison study between NSB data taken from locations of different land usages. It is concluded that, while the reduction in human activities after non-festival midnights or the reduction in moon illumination near the new moon epoch led to darker night skies, brightening of the night skies may be attributed to firework displays during the nights of Spring Festival in 2019. On the other hand, the absence of firework during the Spring Festival in 2020 may explain the darker night skies. Finally, there is an evidence that the urban developments in Wuxi are degrading night sky quality.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3054  
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Author Kolláth, Z.; Cool, A.; Jechow, A.; Kolláth, K.; Száz, D.; Tong, K.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Introducing the Dark Sky Unit for multi-spectral measurement of the night sky quality with commercial digital cameras Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 253 Issue Pages (down) 107162  
  Keywords Skyglow; Instrumentation; Measurement; light pollution; Radiometry  
  Abstract Multi-spectral imaging radiometry of the night sky provides essential information on light pollution (skyglow) and sky quality. However, due to the different spectral sensitivity of the devices used for light pollution measurement, the comparison of different surveys is not always trivial. In addition to the differences between measurement approaches, there is a strong variation in natural sky radiance due to the changes of airglow. Thus, especially at dark locations, the classical measurement methods (such as Sky Quality Meters) fail to provide consistent results. In this paper, we show how to make better use of the multi-spectral capabilities of commercial digital cameras and show their application for airglow analysis. We further recommend a novel sky quality metric the ”Dark Sky Unit”, based on an easily usable and SI traceable unit. This unit is a natural choice for consistent, digital camera-based measurements. We also present our camera system calibration methodology for use with the introduced metrics.  
  Address ELTE BDPK, Szombathely, Department of Physics, Hungary; zkollath(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsever Place of Publication Elsevier Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2998  
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