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Author Nagai, N.; Ayaki, M.; Yanagawa, T.; Hattori, A.; Negishi, K.; Mori, T.; Nakamura, T.J.; Tsubota, K.
Title Suppression of Blue Light at Night Ameliorates Metabolic Abnormalities by Controlling Circadian Rhythms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Abbreviated Journal Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Volume 60 Issue 12 Pages (down) 3786-3793
Keywords Human Health; Animals
Abstract Purpose: Light-emitting diodes that emit high-intensity blue light are associated with blue-light hazard. Here, we report that blue light disturbs circadian rhythms by interfering with the clock gene in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and that suppression of blue light at night ameliorates metabolic abnormalities by controlling circadian rhythms. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10-lux light for 30 minutes at Zeitgeber time 14 for light pulse with blue light or blue-light cut light to induce phase shift of circadian rhythms. Phase shift, clock gene expression in SCN, and metabolic parameters were analyzed. In the clinical study, healthy participants wore blue-light shield eyewear for 2 to 3 hours before bed. Anthropometric data analyses, laboratory tests, and sleep quality questionnaires were performed before and after the study. Results: In mice, phase shift induced with a blue-light cut light pulse was significantly shorter than that induced with a white light pulse. The phase of Per2 expression in the SCN was also delayed after a white light pulse. Moreover, blood glucose levels 48 hours after the white light pulse were higher than those after the blue-cut light pulse. Irs2 expression in the liver was decreased with white light but significantly recovered with the blue-cut light pulse. In a clinical study, after 1 month of wearing blue-light shield eyeglasses, there were improvements in fasting plasma glucose levels, insulin resistance, and sleep quality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that suppression of blue light at night effectively maintains circadian rhythms and metabolism.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0146-0404 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31504080 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2665
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Author Farnworth, B.; Meitern, R.; Innes, J.; Waas, J.R.
Title Increasing predation risk with light reduces speed, exploration and visit duration of invasive ship rats (Rattus rattus) Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages (down) 3739
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exploiting predation cues to deter pests remains an untapped management tool for conservationists. We examined foraging and movement patterns of 20 wild ship rats (Rattus rattus) within a large, outdoor 'U maze' that was either illuminated or dark to assess if light (an indirect predation cue) could deter rodents from ecologically vulnerable locations. Light did not alter rats' foraging behaviour (latency to approach seed tray, visits to seed tray, time per visit to seed tray, total foraging duration, foraging rate) within the experimental resource patch but three of seven movement behaviours were significantly impaired (53% fewer visits to the maze, 70% less exploration within the maze, 40% slower movement within the maze). The total time males spent exposed to illumination also declined by 45 minutes per night, unlike females. Individual visits tended to be longer under illumination, but the latency to visit and the latency to cross through the U maze were unaffected by illumination. Elevating predation risk with illumination may be a useful pest management technique for reducing ship rat activity, particularly in island ecosystems where controlling mammalian predators is paramount to preserving biodiversity.
Address Biological Sciences, School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag, 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30842448; PMCID:PMC6403350 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2250
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Author Shi, G.; Jiang, N.; Li, Y.; He, B.
Title Analysis of the Dynamic Urban Expansion Based on Multi-Sourced Data from 1998 to 2013: A Case Study of Jiangsu Province Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 10 Issue 10 Pages (down) 3467
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Recently, with the fast speed of urban expansion, research concerning the regulation of urban built-up area expansion is a significant topic, especially in Eastern China with its high urbanization level. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data has a high association with the urban-rural distribution, which provides a new method to study urban expansion effectively and with relatively high accuracy. Between 1998 and 2013, China experienced a rapid economic development period, making it crucial to learn the patterns and driving forces to better manage urban master planning and sustainable development. The urban built-up area for the research years are mapped, and the annual urban expansion speed, urbanization intensity index, and built-up area gravity center are analyzed in this paper. The results will show that the amount of the urban built-up area grows continuously from 1998 to 2008, with the development focus in southern Jiangsu, while from 2008 to 2013, the development center moves to northern Jiangsu. The main driving forces behind this urban built-up area expansion are population growth and economic development.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2018
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Xavia, K.
Title Global Approaches to Reduce Light Pollution from Media Architecture and Non-Static, Self-Luminous LED Displays for Mixed-Use Urban Developments Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 11 Issue 12 Pages (down) 3446
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Urban environments have become significantly brighter and more illuminated, and cities now consider media architecture and non-static, self-luminous LED displays an essential element of their strategy to attract residents, visitors, and tourists in the hours after dark. Unfortunately, most often, they are not designed with care, consideration, and awareness, nor do they support the visual wellbeing and circadian rhythms of humans. They also increase light pollution which has an adverse effect on the environment. The aim of this study was to estimate the scale of the negative impact of 28 non-static, self-luminous LED shop window displays within a real-life city context along the main shopping street Banhofstrasse in Zurich, Switzerland. An experimental field measurement survey investigation was performed to identify visual luminance with commonly available tools such as a luminance meter and a digital reflex camera for luminance photography. Moreover, the most important global approaches to reduce light pollution were evaluated in the form of existing guidelines, technical standards, and laws, all of which should be considered when specifying illuminated digital advertisements. A literature review and survey results both confirmed the extent of the problem and highlighted, too, the need to better measure, apply, and manage this new technology. The authors’ proposal for improvements involve practical recommendations for the design and implementation of future projects which can positively guide and direct this growing trend.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2601
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Author Zhang, J.; Jaker, S.L.; Reid, J.S.; Miller, S.D.; Solbrig, J.; Toth, T.D.
Title Characterization and application of artificial light sources for nighttime aerosol optical depth retrievals using the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech.
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages (down) 3209-3222
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Using nighttime observations from Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night band (DNB), the characteristics of artificial light sources are evaluated as functions of observation conditions, and incremental improvements are documented on nighttime aerosol retrievals using VIIRS DNB data on a regional scale. We find that the standard deviation of instantaneous radiance for a given artificial light source is strongly dependent upon the satellite viewing angle but is weakly dependent on lunar fraction and lunar angle. Retrieval of nighttime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) based on the novel use of these artificial light sources is demonstrated for three selected regions (United States, Middle East and India) during 2015. Reasonable agreement is found between nighttime AOTs from the VIIRS DNB and temporally adjacent daytime AOTs from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) as well as from coincident nighttime AOT retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), indicating the potential of this method to begin filling critical gaps in diurnal AOT information at both regional and global scales. Issues related to cloud, snow and ice contamination during the winter season, as well as data loss due to the misclassification of thick aerosol plumes as clouds, must be addressed to make the algorithm operationally robust.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1867-8548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2583
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