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Author Lu, Y.; Coops, N.C.
Title Bright lights, big city: Causal effects of population and GDP on urban brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 13 Issue 7 Pages (down) e0199545
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies' current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city's physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly, bridges the gap between science, policy drafting, and practical urban management. An increasing number of researchers are recognizing the benefits of innovative remotely sensed datasets, such as nighttime lights data (NTL), as a proxy to map urbanization and subsequently examine the driving socio-economic variables in cities. We further these approaches, by taking a trans-pacific view, and examine how an array of socio-economic ind0icators of 25 culturally and economically important urban hubs relate to long term patterns in NTL for the past 21 years. We undertake a classic econometric approach-panel causality tests which allow analysis of the causal relationships between NTL and socio-economic development across the region. The panel causality test results show a contrasting effect of population and gross domestic product (GDP) on NTL in fast, and slowly, changing cities. Information derived from this study quantitatively chronicles urban activities in the pan-Pacific region and potentially offers data for studies that spatially track local progress of sustainable urban development goals.
Address Integrated Remote Sensing Studio, Forest Recourses Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29995923 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1963
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Author Foster, J.J.; Kirwan, J.D.; El Jundi, B.; Smolka, J.; Khaldy, L.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.J.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Johnsen, S.; Dacke, M.
Title Orienting to polarized light at night – matching lunar skylight to performance in a nocturnal beetle Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol
Volume 222 Issue Pt 2 Pages (down) jeb188532
Keywords Animals; Natural skylight; insects; South African dung beetle; Escarabaeus satyrus; polarized light; Orientation
Abstract For polarized light to inform behaviour, the typical range of degrees of polarization observable in the animal's natural environment must be above the threshold for detection and interpretation. Here, we present the first investigation of the degree of linear polarization threshold for orientation behaviour in a nocturnal species, with specific reference to the range of degrees of polarization measured in the night sky. An effect of lunar phase on the degree of polarization of skylight was found, with smaller illuminated fractions of the moon's surface corresponding to lower degrees of polarization in the night sky. We found that the South African dung beetle Escarabaeus satyrus can orient to polarized light for a range of degrees of polarization similar to that observed in diurnal insects, reaching a lower threshold between 0.04 and 0.32, possibly as low as 0.11. For degrees of polarization lower than 0.23, as measured on a crescent moon night, orientation performance was considerably weaker than that observed for completely linearly polarized stimuli, but was nonetheless stronger than in the absence of polarized light.
Address Lund Vision Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Solvegatan 35, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30530838 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2599
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Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.
Title Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data
Volume 5 Issue Pages (down) 180256
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.
Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769
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Author Sharma, A.; Goyal, R.
Title Long-term exposure to constant light induces dementia, oxidative stress and promotes aggregation of sub-pathological Abeta42 in Wistar rats Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav
Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 172892
Keywords Animals; Amyloid beta; Behavior, fluoxetine, rifampicin; Oxidative stress
Abstract Constant exposure to light is prevalent in modern society where light noise, shift work, and jet lag is common. Constant light exposure disrupts circadian rhythm, induces stress and thus influences memory performance. We subjected adult male Wistar rats to a two-month exposure to constant light (LL), constant dark or normal light-dark cycles. Significant cognitive impairment and oxidative stress were observed in LL rats without a significant elevation in soluble Abeta1-42 levels. Next, we examined whether long-term exposure to constant light may accelerate dementia in a sub-pathological Abeta model of rats. Normal control rats received ACSF, AD rats received 440pmol, and sub-pathological Abeta rats (Abeta(s)) received 220pmol of human Abeta42 peptide in a single unilateral ICV administration. Sub-pathological Abeta rats exposed to constant light (LL+Abeta(s)) show significant memory deficits and oxidative damage, although not significantly different from LL rats. Additionally, constant light promoted aggregation of exogenous Abeta42 in LL+Abeta(s) rats shown by the presence of congophilic plaques. Furthermore, chronic fluoxetine treatment (5mg/kg/day) rescued rats from the behavioral deficits, oxidative damage and amyloid aggregation. Whereas, rifampicin treatment (20mg/kg/day) did not reverse the behavioral deficits or oxidative stress but rescued rats from amyloid plaque formation. It was concluded that constant light for two months induces behavioral deficits, oxidative stress, and accelerates aggregation of sub-pathological concentrations of human-Abeta42 peptides in Wistar rats, which is reversed by daily fluoxetine administration.
Address Neuropharmacology Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan 173 212, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address: rohitgoyal@shooliniuniversity.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-3057 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32142744 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2841
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Author Yonezawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tomioka, M.; Matsuki, N.
Title Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages (down) e0161735
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.
Address Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27580019; PMCID:PMC5006988 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2082
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