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Author Molcan, L.; Sutovska, H.; Okuliarova, M.; Senko, T.; Krskova, L.; Zeman, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night attenuates circadian rhythms in the cardiovascular system and suppresses melatonin in rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci  
  Volume 231 Issue Pages (down) 116568  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract AIMS: Cardiovascular parameters exhibit significant 24-h variability, which is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and light/dark cycles control SCN activity. We aimed to study the effects of light at night (ALAN; 1-2lx) on cardiovascular system control in normotensive rats. MAIN METHODS: Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by telemetry during five weeks of ALAN exposure. From beat-to-beat telemetry data, we evaluated spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS). After 2 (A2) and 5 (A5) weeks of ALAN, plasma melatonin concentrations and the response of BP and HR to norepinephrine administration were measured. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1 was determined in the aorta. Spontaneous exploratory behaviour was evaluated in an open-field test. KEY FINDINGS: ALAN significantly suppressed the 24-h variability in the HR, BP, and sBRS after A2, although the parameters were partially restored after A5. The daily variability in the BP response to norepinephrine was reduced after A2 and restored after A5. ALAN increased the BP response to norepinephrine compared to the control after A5. Increased eNOS expression was found in arteries after A2 but not A5. Endothelin-1 expression was not affected by ALAN. Plasma melatonin levels were suppressed after A2 and A5. Spontaneous exploratory behaviour was reduced. SIGNIFICANCE: ALAN decreased plasma melatonin and the 24-h variability in the haemodynamic parameters and increased the BP response to norepinephrine. A low intensity ALAN can suppress circadian control of the cardiovascular system with negative consequences on the anticipation of a load.  
  Address Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0024-3205 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31202842 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2548  
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Author Grauer, A.D.; Grauer, P.A.; Davies, N.; Davies, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of Space Weather on the Natural Night Sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal PASP  
  Volume 131 Issue 1005 Pages (down) 114508  
  Keywords Darkness; night sky brightness; United States; New Zealand; Sun; space weather; solar wind  
  Abstract In 2018, Solar Cycle 24 entered a deep solar minimum. During this period, we collected night sky brightness data at Cosmic Campground International Dark Sky Sanctuary (CCIDSS) in the USA (2018 September 4–2019 January 4) and at Aotea/Great Barrier Island International Dark Sky Sanctuary (AGBIIDSS) in New Zealand (2018 March 26–August 31. These sites have artificial-light-pollution-free natural night skies. The equipment employed are identical Unihedron SQM-LU-DL meters, used as single-channel differential photometers, to scan the sky as Earth rotates on its axis. We have developed new analysis techniques which select those data points which are uninfluenced by Sun, Moon, or clouds to follow brightness changes at selected points on the celestial sphere and to measure the brightness of the airglow above its quiescent level. The 2018 natural night sky was measured to change in brightness by approximately 0.9 mag arcsec−2 at both locations. Preliminary results indicate the modulations of the light curves (brightness versus R.A.) we observed are related in complex ways to elements of space weather conditions in the near-Earth environment. In particular, episodes of increased night sky brightness are observed to be contemporaneous with geomagnetic activity, increases in mean solar wind speed, and some solar proton/electron fluence events. Charged particles in the solar wind take days to reach near-Earth environment after a coronal hole is observed to be facing in our direction. Use of this information could make it possible to predict increases in Earth’s natural night sky brightness several days in advance. What we have learned during this solar minimum leads us to search for other solar driven changes in night sky brightness as the Sun begins to move into solar maximum conditions.  
  Address Catalina Sky Survey, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, USA; algrauer(at)me.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Astronomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2696  
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Author Renthlei, Z.; Trivedi, A.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of urban environment on pineal machinery and clock genes expression of tree sparrow (Passer montanus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 255 Issue Pages (down) 113278  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Increasing urbanisation is altering the physiology of wild animals and the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. We hypothesised that altering the physiology of urban organisms is due to the effect of extra light at night on the circadian clock by modulating the expression of pineal machinery and clock genes. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, immediately after being procured from their respective sites (urban and rural sites), birds were released individually in LLdim light conditions. Circadian rhythm period, activity duration, and total activity count were calculated and did not differ between urban and rural birds. In Experiment 2, birds (from urban and rural habitats) were sampled at six time points at regular 4-h intervals, beginning 1 h after sunrise. We measured daily variations in plasma melatonin levels. We also analysed the expression levels of Aanat, Mel1A and Mel1B as an indicator of melatonin biosynthesis and action machinery. Clock and clock-controlled genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and Npas2) were studied in the hypothalamus, the pineal gland, and retina to investigate the effects of urban habitats on the circadian clock. Our results show that there is a lower expression of Aanat in the pineal gland and relatively low plasma melatonin levels in urban birds. Further, clock genes are also differentially expressed in all three central tissues of urban birds. We propose that alterations in the melatonin biosynthesis machinery and the expression of clock genes could result in miscalculations in the internal timing of the organism, with environmental timings leading to altered physiology in urban wild animals.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2682  
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Author Li, X.; Ma, R.; Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Liu, S.; He, T.; Zhao, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anisotropic characteristic of artificial light at night – Systematic investigation with VIIRS DNB multi-temporal observations Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 233 Issue Pages (down) 111357  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract The released VIIRS DNB nightly images, also known as VIIRS DNB daily nighttime images, provide rich information for time series analysis of global socioeconomic dynamics. Anisotropic characteristic is a possible factor that influences the VIIRS DNB radiance at night and its time series analysis. This study aims to investigate the relationship between viewing angles and VIIRS DNB radiance of Suomi NPP satellite in urban areas. First, twenty-nine points were selected globally to explore the angle variation of Suomi NPP satellite views at night. We found that the variation of the satellite viewing zenith angle (VZA) is consistent (e.g. between 0° and 70°) since the range of VZA is fixed depending on the sensor design, and the range of viewing azimuth angle (VAA) increases with the increase of latitude. Second, thirty points in cities of Beijing, Houston, Los Angeles, Moscow, Quito and Sydney, were used to investigate the angle-radiance relationship. We proposed a zenith-radiance quadratic (ZRQ) model and a zenith-azimuth-radiance binary quadratic (ZARBQ) model to quantify the relationship between satellite viewing angles and artificial light radiance, which has been corrected by removing the moonlight and atmospheric impact from VIIRS DNB radiance products. For all the thirty points, the ZRQ and ZARBQ analysis have averaged R2 of 0.50 and 0.53, respectively, which indicates that the viewing angles are important factors influencing the variation of the artificial light radiance, but extending zenith to zenith-azimuth does not much better explain the variation of the observed artificial light. Importantly, based on the data analysis, we can make the hypothesis that building height may affect the relationship between VZA and artificial light, and cold and hot spot effects are clearly found in tall building areas. These findings are potentially useful to reconstruct more stable time series VIIRS DNB images for socioeconomic applications by removing the angular effects.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2621  
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Author Falchi, F.; Furgoni, R.; Gallaway, T.A.; Rybnikova, N.A.; Portnov, B.A.; Baugh, K.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution in USA and Europe: The good, the bad and the ugly Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Management  
  Volume 248 Issue Pages (down) 109227  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Light pollution is a worldwide problem that has a range of adverse effects on human health and natural eco-systems. Using data from the New World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, VIIRS-recorded radiance and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, we compared light pollution levels, and the light flux to the population size and GDP at the State and County levels in the USA and at Regional (NUTS2) and Province (NUTS3) levels inEurope. We found 6800-fold differences between the most and least polluted regions in Europe, 120-fold differences in their light flux per capita, and 267-fold differences influx per GDP unit. Yet, we found even greater differences between US counties: 200,000-fold differences in sky pollution, 16,000-fold differences in light flux per capita, and 40,000-fold differences in light flux per GDP unit. These findings may inform policy-makers, helping to reduce energy waste and adverse environmental, cultural and health consequences associated with light pollution.  
  Address STIL – Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute, Thiene, Italy; Italy. falchi@lightpollution.it(at)istil.it  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2593  
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