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Author Leonard, J.P.; Tewes, M.E.; Lombardi, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Campbell, T.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of sun angle, lunar illumination, and diurnal temperature on temporal movement rates of sympatric ocelots and bobcats in South Texas Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages (down) e0231732  
  Keywords Animals; moonlight  
  Abstract Sympatric ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in South Texas show substantial overlap in body size, food habits, and habitat use. Consequently, we explore whether temporal niche partitioning may explain ocelot and bobcat coexistence. We investigated the influence of sun angle, lunar illumination, and maximum diurnal temperature on temporal movement rates of sympatric ocelots (n = 8) and bobcats (n = 6) using a combination of high-frequency GPS locations and bi-axial accelerometer data. We demonstrated that accelerometer data could be used to predict movement rates, providing a nearly continuous measure of animal activity and supplementing GPS locations. Ocelots showed a strong nocturnal activity pattern with the highest movement rates at night whereas bobcats showed a crepuscular activity pattern with the highest movement rates occurring around sunrise and sunset. Although bobcat activity levels were lower during the day, bobcat diurnal activity was higher than ocelot diurnal activity. During warmer months, bobcats were more active on nights with high levels of lunar illumination. In contrast, ocelots showed the highest nocturnal activity levels during periods of low lunar illumination. Ocelots showed reduced diurnal activity on hotter days. Our results indicate that ocelot and bobcat coexistence in South Texas can be partially explained by temporal niche partitioning, although both felids showed periods of overlapping activity during nocturnal and crepuscular periods.  
  Address East Foundation, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32324759 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2891  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cisse, Y.M.; Russart, K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages (down) e0231140  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-alpha expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32302341 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2887  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Roman, M.O.; Stokes, E.C.; Shrestha, R.; Wang, Z.; Schultz, L.; Carlo, E.A.S.; Sun, Q.; Bell, J.; Molthan, A.; Kalb, V.; Ji, C.; Seto, K.C.; McClain, S.N.; Enenkel, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Satellite-based assessment of electricity restoration efforts in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0218883  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract A real-time understanding of the distribution and duration of power outages after a major disaster is a precursor to minimizing their harmful consequences. Here, we develop an approach for using daily satellite nighttime lights data to create spatially disaggregated power outage estimates, tracking electricity restoration efforts after disasters strike. In contrast to existing utility data, these estimates are independent, open, and publicly-available, consistently measured across regions that may be serviced by several different power companies, and inclusive of distributed power supply (off-grid systems). We apply the methodology in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria, which caused the longest blackout in US history. Within all of the island's settlements, we track outages and recovery times, and link these measures to census-based demographic characteristics of residents. Our results show an 80% decrease in lights, in total, immediately after Hurricane Maria. During the recovery, a disproportionate share of long-duration power failures (> 120 days) occurred in rural municipalities (41% of rural municipalities vs. 29% of urban municipalities), and in the northern and eastern districts. Unexpectedly, we also identify large disparities in electricity recovery between neighborhoods within the same urban area, based primarily on the density of housing. For many urban areas, poor residents, the most vulnerable to increased mortality and morbidity risks from power losses, shouldered the longest outages because they lived in less dense, detached housing where electricity restoration lagged. The approach developed in this study demonstrates the potential of satellite-based estimates of power recovery to improve the real-time monitoring of disaster impacts, globally, at a spatial resolution that is actionable for the disaster response community.  
  Address Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31251791 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2564  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Andrade-Pacheco, R.; Savory, D.J.; Midekisa, A.; Gething, P.W.; Sturrock, H.J.W.; Bennett, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Household electricity access in Africa (2000-2013): Closing information gaps with model-based geostatistics Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0214635  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Household electricity access data in Africa are scarce, particularly at the subnational level. We followed a model-based Geostatistics approach to produce maps of electricity access between 2000 and 2013 at a 5 km resolution. We collated data from 69 nationally representative household surveys conducted in Africa and incorporated nighttime lights imagery as well as land use and land cover data to produce maps of electricity access between 2000 and 2013. The information produced here can be an aid for understanding of how electricity access has changed in the region during this 14 year period. The resolution and the continental scale makes it possible to combine these data with other sources in applications in the socio-economic field, both at a local or regional level.  
  Address Malaria Elimination Initiative, Institute for Global Health Sciences, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31042727; PMCID:PMC6493706 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2531  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Falchi, F.; Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A linear systems approach to protect the night sky: implications for current and future regulations Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 7 Issue 12 Pages (down) 201501  
  Keywords Skyglow; Regulation; Lighting  
  Abstract The persistent increase of artificial light emissions is causing a progressive brightening of the night sky in most regions of the world. This process is a threat for the long-term sustainability of the scientific and educational activity of ground-based astronomical observatories operating in the optical range. Huge investments in building, scientific and technical workforce, equipment and maintenance can be at risk if the increasing light pollution levels hinder the capability of carrying out the top-level scientific observations for which these key scientific infrastructures were built. Light pollution has other negative consequences, as e.g. biodiversity endangering and the loss of the starry sky for recreational, touristic and preservation of cultural heritage. The traditional light pollution mitigation approach is based on imposing conditions on the photometry of individual sources, but the aggregated effects of all sources in the territory surrounding the observatories are seldom addressed in the regulations. We propose that this approach shall be complemented with a top-down, ambient artificial skyglow immission limits strategy, whereby clear limits are established to the admissible deterioration of the night sky above the observatories. We describe the general form of the indicators that can be employed to this end, and develop linear models relating their values to the artificial emissions across the territory. This approach can be easily applied to other protection needs, like e.g. to protect nocturnal ecosystems, and it is expected to be useful for making informed decisions on public lighting, in the context of wider spatial planning projects.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3260  
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