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Author Yang, Y.; Liu, Q.; Wang, T.; Pan, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution disrupts molecular clock in avian species: A power-calibrated meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 114206  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Nighttime lighting is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental stress on plants and animals. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may disrupt circadian rhythm. However, studies involved in molecular biology, e.g. disruption of molecular circadian clock by light pollution, always have a small sample sizes. The small sample sizes result in a low statistical power and difficulties in replicating prior results. Here, a power-calibrated meta-analysis was developed to overcome these weakness. The results demonstrated that effect size of 2.48 in clock genes induced by artificial light would promised the reproducibility of the results as high as 80%. Long wavelength light entrained the positive core clock genes and negative core clock genes with robust circadian rhythmic expression, whereas some of those genes, e.g. cClock, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2, and cPer3, were arrhythmic in short wavelength light. Artificial light entrained the transcriptional-translational feedback loop of molecular clock in a wavelength-dependent manner. The expression positive core clock genes (cBmal1, cBmal2 and cClock), cAanat gene and melatonin were the greatest in short wavelength light and the lowest in long wavelength light. However, for negative regulators of molecular clock (cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3), the greatest were in long wavelength light and the lowest were in short wavelength light. Our study opens up new opportunities to understand and strengthen conclusions based on the studies with small sample sizes and provides further insight about the disrupting in circadian rhythm by short wavelength light. Especially, the global lighting is shifting from “yellow” sodium lamps toward blue-enriched “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs).  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2852  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ehrlich, D.; Schiavina, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Kemper, T. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Detecting spatial pattern of inequalities from remote sensing – Towards mapping of deprived communities and poverty Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication EUR 29465 EN Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) JRC113941  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Spatial inequalities across the globe are not easy to detect and satellite data have shown to be of use in this task. Earth Observation (EO) data combined with other information sources can provide complementary information to those derived from traditional methods. This research shows patterns of inequalities emerging by combining global night lights measured from Earth Observation, population density and built-up in 2015. The focus of the paper is to describe the spatial patterns that emerge by combing the three variables. This work focuses on processing EO data to derive information products, and in combining built-up- and population density with night-time lights emission. The built-up surface was derived entirely from remote sensing archives using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques. The built-up was combined with population census data to derive population density. Also the night-time lights emission data were available from EO satellite sensors. The three layers are subsequently combined as three colour compositions based on the three primary colours (i.e. red, green and blue) to display the “spatial human settlement pattern” maps. These GHSL nightlights provide insights in inequalities across the globe. Many patterns seem to be associated with countries income. Typically, high income countries are very well lit at night, low income countries are poorly lit at night. All larger cities of the world are lit at night, those in low-income countries are often less well lit than cites in high-income countries. There are also important differences in nightlights emission in conflict areas, or along borders of countries. This report provides a selected number of patterns that are described at the regional, national and local scale. However, in depth analysis would be required to assess more precisely that relation between wealth access to energy and countries GDP, for example. This work also addresses regional inequality in GHSL nightlights in Slovakia. The country was selected to address the deprivation of the Roma minority community. The work aims to relate the information from the GHSL nightlights with that collected from field survey and census information conducted at the national level. Socio-economic data available at subnational level was correlated with nightlight. The analysis shows that despite the potential of GHSL nightlights in identifying deprived areas, the measurement scale of satellite derived nightlights at 375 x 375 m to 750 x 750 m pixel size is too coarse to capture the inequalities of deprived communities that occur at finer scale. In addition, in the European context, the gradient of inequality is not strong enough to produce strong evidence. Although there is a specific pattern of GHSL nightlights in settlements with high Roma presence, this cannot be used to identify such areas among the others. This work is part of the exploratory data analysis conducted within the GHSL team. The exploratory analysis will be followed by more quantitative assessments that will be available in future work.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher European Union Place of Publication Luxembourg Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-92-79-97528-8 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2821  
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Author Cope, K.L.; Schook, M.W.; Benard, M.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to artificial light at night during the larval stage has delayed effects on juvenile corticosterone concentration in American toads, Anaxyrus americanus Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 113508  
  Keywords Animals; amphibian; anthropogenic light; carry-over effects; environmental stressor; glucocorticoid; predation  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an environmental stressor that can disrupt individual physiology and ecological interactions. Hormones such as corticosterone are often responsible for mediating an organism's response to environmental stressors. We investigated whether ALAN was associated with a corticosterone response and whether it exacerbated the effects of another common stressor, predation. We tested for consumptive, non-consumptive, and physiological effects of ALAN and predator presence (dragonfly larvae) on a widespread amphibian, the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus). We found predators had consumptive (decreased survival) and non-consumptive (decreased growth) effects on larval toads. ALAN did not affect larval toads nor did it interact with the predator treatment to increase larval toad predation. Despite the consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators, neither predators nor ALAN affected corticosterone concentration in the larval and metamorph life-stages. In contrast to studies in other organisms, we did not find any evidence that suggested ALAN alters predator-prey interactions between dragonfly larvae and toads. However, there was an inverse relationship between corticosterone and survival that was exacerbated by exposure to ALAN when predators were absent. Additionally, larval-stage exposure to ALAN increased corticosterone concentration in juvenile toads. Our results suggest the physiological effects of ALAN may not be demonstrated until later life-stages.  
  Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44016, USA. Electronic address: mfb38@case.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32442544 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2931  
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Smit, J.A.H.; Visser, M.E.; Halfwerk, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multisensory pollution: Artificial light at night and anthropogenic noise have interactive effects on activity patterns of great tits (Parus major) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 256 Issue Pages (down) 113314  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Urbanisation is increasing globally at a rapid pace. Consequently, wild species face novel environmental stressors associated with urban sprawl, such as artificial light at night and noise. These stressors have pervasive effects on the behaviour and physiology of many species. Most studies have singled out the impact of just one of these stressors, while in the real world they are likely to co-occur both temporally and spatially, and we thus lack a clear understanding of the combined effect of anthropogenic stressors on wild species. Here, we experimentally exposed captive male great tits (Parus major) to artificial light at night and 24 h noise in a fully factorial experiment. We then measured the effect of both these stressors on their own and their combination on the amount and timing of activity patterns. We found that both light and noise affected activity patterns when presented alone, but in opposite ways: light increased activity, particularly at night, while noise reduced it, particularly during the day. When the two stressors were combined, we found a synergistic effect on the total activity and the nighttime activity, but an antagonistic effect on daytime activity. The significant interaction between noise and light treatment also differed among forest and city birds. Indeed, we detected a significant interactive effect on light and noise on daytime, nighttime, dusktime and offset of activity of urban birds, but not of forest birds. These results suggest that both artificial light at night and anthropogenic noise can drive changes in activity patterns, but that the specific impacts depend on the habitat of origin. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that co-occurring exposure to noise and light can lead to a stronger impact at night than predicted from the additive effects and thus that multisensory pollution may be a considerable threat for wildlife.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, the Netherlands; avide.dominoni(at)glasgow.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2744  
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Author Renthlei, Z.; Trivedi, A.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of urban environment on pineal machinery and clock genes expression of tree sparrow (Passer montanus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 255 Issue Pages (down) 113278  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Increasing urbanisation is altering the physiology of wild animals and the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. We hypothesised that altering the physiology of urban organisms is due to the effect of extra light at night on the circadian clock by modulating the expression of pineal machinery and clock genes. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, immediately after being procured from their respective sites (urban and rural sites), birds were released individually in LLdim light conditions. Circadian rhythm period, activity duration, and total activity count were calculated and did not differ between urban and rural birds. In Experiment 2, birds (from urban and rural habitats) were sampled at six time points at regular 4-h intervals, beginning 1 h after sunrise. We measured daily variations in plasma melatonin levels. We also analysed the expression levels of Aanat, Mel1A and Mel1B as an indicator of melatonin biosynthesis and action machinery. Clock and clock-controlled genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and Npas2) were studied in the hypothalamus, the pineal gland, and retina to investigate the effects of urban habitats on the circadian clock. Our results show that there is a lower expression of Aanat in the pineal gland and relatively low plasma melatonin levels in urban birds. Further, clock genes are also differentially expressed in all three central tissues of urban birds. We propose that alterations in the melatonin biosynthesis machinery and the expression of clock genes could result in miscalculations in the internal timing of the organism, with environmental timings leading to altered physiology in urban wild animals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2682  
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