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Author Hyde, E.; Frank, S.; Barentine, J. C.; Kuechly, H.; Kyba, C. C. M.
Title Testing for changes in light emissions from certified International Dark Sky Places Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 11-19
Keywords Remote Sensing; Conservation; Policy
Abstract The International Dark-Sky Places (IDSP) program of the International Dark-Sky Association is a voluntary certification in which communities commit via legislative changes to move towards more sustainable lighting that reduces light pollution. As over 115 IDSP have now been certified, it is interesting to ask the extent to which this certification results in reduced light emissions. In this paper, we compared trends in upward light emission of 98 communities located in or near IDSP to those of 98 similarly sized communities further away from the IDSP, using a night lights observing satellite (the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day-Night Band). The current dataset is not sufficient to distinguish the hypothesis that IDSP certification results in a lower rate of change in upward light emissions from the null hypothesis that IDSP certification has no impact. This result is with regard to upward light emissions only: it is possible that certification has resulted in decreases in night sky brightness that the satellite is not able to observe.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2616
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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Light Pollution at Mount Wilson and at Palomar in 1931-32 Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 122 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract I present a short summary of an unpublished letter by Joel Stebbins on light pollution at Mount Wilson Observatory and on Palmar Mountain in 1931-32. I analyzed his results and show that the light emission per capita in 1932 – o was about 3*1*10^17 photons s^-1 in the blue region, equivalent to about 220 lumens per head in the visual region. These my be compared with about 1*4*10^18 photons s^-1 in the blue region and about 1000 lumens per head in the visual region for California cities in 1970.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2622
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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Limiting visual magnitude and night sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana Abbreviated Journal
Volume 71 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract We review the theory of visual thresholds and applications to the limiting magnitude of a telescope and of the eyes, based on Schaefers's model with minor improvements. We apply out formulation to the Yerkes Observatory refractor and to naked eye observations at Mount Wilson Observatory. We reanalyze Bowen's telescopic observations at Mount Wilson by his approximate method and by our more elaborate theory. An extension of his method leads to a determination of the night sky brightness of the visual activity of the observer is assumed to be average. Our more elaborate method allows a determination of the sky brightness, the visual acuity of the observer, and the average seeing during the observations.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2623
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Author Simons, K. S., van den Boogaard, M., & de Jager, C. P. C.
Title Impact of intensive care unit light and noise exposure on critically ill patients Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Neth j crit care Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract Recently, the importance of the ICU environment as a potential modifiable factor for improvement of patient care has become more clear. In this review, we describe the effects of light and noise exposure on ICU patients. In ICU patients circadian rhythms and sleep are severely disturbed, which may increase the risk of delirium. Realignment of circadian rhythmicity by means of artificial light therapy has not been shown to reduce the incidence or duration of delirium. Prudent use of nighttime light may be a first step in improvement of patient sleep. Eye masks appear to improve sleep although they are only applicable for a selected group of patients. Noise levels in the ICU are above recommended standards. Negative effects include disturbances of sleep, as often encountered in ICU patients. Staff activity and talking contribute substantially to the total acoustic energy, providing opportunities to adapt behaviour and/or workflow in order to reduce noise pollution.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2624
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Author Donker, D. W.
Title Light and noise nuisance … deciphered yet underappreciated ‘Rosetta Stone’ of the modern ICU? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Netherlands Journal of Critical Care Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 144
Keywords Commentary; Human Health; hospitals; Department of Intensive Care Unit; health care
Abstract In everyday life, we take for granted that public authorities protect us from an unhealthy environment, including light and noise pollution. In recent years, about 1200 kilometres of noise barriers have been built alongside Dutch highways with costs approaching a billion euros. Also, more than 50 cities in the Netherlands have successfully taken initiatives to reduce the artificial light pollution in the past six years, as our country is well known to rank among the literally most illuminated ones in the world. These investments seem to be reasonable as adverse health effects from environmental light and noise pollution have long and widely been recognised. How these potentially detrimental effects of artificial light and distressing noise acting on the human body translate into the best possible care that we strive to provide within our modern ICU environment is an area of increasing professional awareness, interest and research. Yet, we all realise that not only light and noise, but numerous physical and psychological stressors may negatively affect individual ICU patients. Also, the impact of these factors may vary considerably among individuals, which makes it even more difficult for caregivers to prioritise among apparently competing aspects of care in their daily practice. A comprehensive, narrative review by Koen Simons and colleagues in this issue of the Netherlands Journal of Critical Care provides us with up-to-date information on the ‘impact of intensive care unit light and noise exposure on critically ill patients’.Here, we gain more insights and learn how a multimodal approach to our ICU environment may aid to optimise light exposure and reduce noise. This may not only improve our patients’ sleep and general wellbeing, but also

reduce the incidence of delirium. The latter seems especially relevant since the pharmacological prevention of delirium has repeatedly been shown to be disappointing, as recently confirmed again in a large Dutch trial. All this evidence sets the stage to further promote nonpharmacological interventions in the ICU to prevent delirium. Therefore, we should do our best to limit controllable stressors in the ICU in order to improve patient comfort and hopefully enhance the individual prognosis. As our traditional focus on the medical and technical aspects of critical care has led us to asymptotically reach current therapeutic optima; human factors and soft skills are no longer far in the horizon of the modern ICU.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2625
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