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Author Skinner, N., & Bullough, J.
Title Influence of LED Spectral Characteristics on Glare Recovery Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0845 Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Headlight glare is a major concern of the driving public. In the past couple of years there have been concerns expressed about the use of light emitting diode (LED) lighting technologies and possible impacts LEDs may have on people, including circadian disruption, retinal hazards, and glare. Under typical use cases, vehicle headlight exposures are insufficient to cause circadian disruption or retinal damage, but can result in disability and discomfort glare, as well as glare recovery. In general, white LEDs used for illumination have greater short-wavelength content than halogen lamps used in many headlights, and short wavelengths have been implicated in visual discomfort from bright lights at night. Previous literature is inconsistent regarding whether the spectral (color) content of a glare source affects the amount of recovery time needed to see objects, following exposure to a bright light such as a vehicle headlight. Warm and cool white LEDs were used as glare sources in the present study. They were energized and exposed to study participants at one of two illuminances (low, high) for either 3 or 6 seconds, after which participants were asked to identify the orientation of a Landolt ring target located on a display screen behind the glare source. Identification times were unaffected by the spectral content of the LED, but were correlated with the “dosage” of light from the glare sources, defined as the product of illuminance and duration. Although cool white LEDs will tend to be judged as creating more discomfort than warm white LEDs, they do not result in longer glare recovery times under the range of conditions used in this study.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2299
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Author Straka,T. M., Wolf, M., Gras, P., Buchholz, S., & Voigt, C. C.
Title Tree Cover Mediates the Effect of Artificial Light on Urban Bats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue (up) Pages 91
Keywords Animals; ALAN; bats; canopy cover; chiroptera; light-emitting diodes; LED; trees; Ultraviolet; urban
Abstract With urban areas growing worldwide, so does artificial light at night (ALAN) which negatively affects many nocturnal animals, including bats. The response of bats to ALAN ranges from some opportunistic species taking advantage of insect aggregations around street lamps, particularly those emitting ultraviolet (UV) light, to others avoiding lit areas at all. Tree cover has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of ALAN on bats by shielding areas against light scatter. Here, we investigated the effect of tree cover on the relationship between ALAN and bats in Berlin, Germany. In particular, we asked if this interaction varies with the UV light spectrum of street lamps and also across urban bat species. We expected trees next to street lamps to block ALAN, making the adjacent habitat more suitable for all species, irrespective of the wavelength spectrum of the light source. Additionally, we expected UV emitting lights next to trees to attract insects and thus, opportunistic bats. In summer 2017, we recorded bat activity at 22 green open spaces in Berlin using automated ultrasonic detectors. We analyzed bat activity patterns and landscape variables (number of street lamps with and without UV light emission, an estimate of light pollution, and tree cover density around each recording site within different spatial scales) using generalized linear mixed-effects models with a negative binomial distribution. We found a species-specific response of bats to street lamps with and without UV light, providing a more detailed picture of ALAN impacts than simply total light radiance. Moreover, we found that dense tree cover dampened the negative effect of street lamps without UV for open-space foraging bats of the genera Nyctalus, Eptesicus, and Vespertilio, yet it amplified the already existing negative or positive effect of street lamps with or without UV on Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, and Myotis spp. Our study underpins the importance of minimizing artificial light at night close to vegetation, particularly for bats adapted to spatial complexity in the environment (i.e., clutter-adapted species), and to increase dense vegetation in urban landscape to provide, besides roosting opportunities, protection against ALAN for open-space foraging bats in city landscapes.
Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2302
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Author Garrett, J. K., Donald, P. F., & Gaston, K. J.
Title Skyglow extends into the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages cv.12480
Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Biodiversity; Key Biodiversity Area; KBA
Abstract The proportion of the Earth’s surface that experiences a naturally dark environment at night is rapidly declining with the introduction of artificial light. Biological impacts of this change have been documented from genes to ecosystems, and for a wide diversity of environments and organisms. The likely severity of these impacts depends heavily on the relationship between the distribution of artificial night-time lighting and biodiversity. Here, we carry out a global assessment of the overlap between areas of conservation priority and the most recent atlas of artificial skyglow. We show that of the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), less than a third have completely pristine night-time skies, about a half lie entirely under artificially bright skies and only about a fifth contain no area in which night-time skies are not polluted to the zenith. The extent of light pollution of KBAs varies by region, affecting the greatest proportion of KBAs in Europe and the Middle East. Statistical modelling revealed associations between light pollution within KBAs and associated levels of both gross domestic product and human population density. This suggests that these patterns will worsen with continued economic development and growth in the human population
Address Environment & Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK; j.k.garrett(at)exeter.ac.uk
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Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2309
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Author Peregrym, M., Kónya E. P., & Vasyliuk, O.
Title The impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the National Nature Parks, Biosphere and Naturе Reserves of the Steppe Zone and Crimean Mountains within Ukraine Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Palaearctic Grasslands Abbreviated Journal
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Keywords Skyglow; Conservation
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) and sky glow are a recognized anthropogenic pressure, but the consequences of this pressure on protected areas within Ukraine are unclear. This research attempted to estimate the level of light pollution on the protected territories of the National Nature Parks (NNPs), Biosphere and Nature Reserves in the Steppe Zone and Crimea Mountains of Ukraine. Kmz layers of

these protected territories and the New World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness, through Google Earth Pro, were used to calculate the level of artificial sky brightness for 15 NNPs, three Biosphere Reserves and 10 Nature Reserves. The results show that even some of the most protected areas within the Steppe Zone and Crimean Mountains are impacted by ALAN. Of the studied protected areas 44.2% have a natural dark night sky, 40.1% have artificial brightness ranging between 8 and 16%, and the remainder (15.7%) are polluted with an artificial brightness greater than 16%. Areas with light pollution greater than 16% are often situated near big cities or industrial centers. It was noted that light pollution levels were not taken into account during the creation of any protected areas within Ukraine.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2310
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Author Lessard, B.
Title Shot in the Dark: Nocturnal Philosophy and Night Photography Type Book Chapter
Year 2018 Publication Critical Distance in Documentary Media Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages 45-67
Keywords Society; Art
Abstract This chapter examines the neglected practice of night photography, and how it critically addresses the environmental, sociohistorical, and urban issues in recent series by Christina Seely, Bruno Lessard, Michel Huneault, and Jeanine Michna-Bales. Drawing on Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas, and the emerging field of night studies to create a nocturnal philosophy—a dark photology—with which to frame the multifaceted issues at the heart of the series, the author examines the value that these photographic artists place upon night to document light pollution around the world, ongoing urban transformations in China, an environmental catastrophe and its aftermath in Québec, and the landscape of the Underground Railroad in the United States. These four series demonstrate how night photography offers a unique critical perspective on some of the most pressing problems of our age, and how these artists distance themselves from the predominantly diurnal register of documentary media.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2319
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