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Author Stone, T.
Title Re-envisioning the Nocturnal Sublime: On the Ethics and Aesthetics of Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Topoi Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Society
Abstract Grounded in the practical problem of light pollution, this paper examines the aesthetic dimensions of urban and natural darkness, and its impact on how we perceive and evaluate nighttime lighting. It is argued that competing notions of the sublime, manifested through artificial illumination and the natural night sky respectively, reinforce a geographical dualism between cities and wilderness. To challenge this spatial differentiation, recent work in urban-focused environmental ethics, as well as environmental aesthetics, are utilized to envision the moral and aesthetic possibilities of a new urban nocturnal sublime. Through articulating the aspirations and constraints of a new urban nocturnal experience, this paper elucidates the axiological dimensions of light pollution, draws attention to nightscapes as a site of importance for urban-focused (environmental) philosophy, and examines the enduring relevance of the sublime for both the design of nighttime illumination and the appreciation of the night sky.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2098
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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R.
Title Street Lighting and Public Safety: New Nighttime Lighting Documentation Method Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication ARCC Conference Repository Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2103
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Author Van Tatenhove, A.; Fayet, A.; Watanuki, Y.; Yoda, K.; Shoji, A.
Title Streaked Shearwater Calonectris leucomelas moonlight avoidance in response to low aerial predation pressure, and effects of wind speed and direction on colony attendance Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Marine Ornithology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 46 Issue (up) Pages 177-185
Keywords Moonlight
Abstract Many species of Procellaridae are nocturnal on their breeding grounds, exhibiting reduced activity during fuller moonlight, perhaps to avoid predation by predators that use the full moon to hunt after sunset. Among these nocturnal species, Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas have high wing loading and have difficulty taking off—especially with unfavorable wind conditions—thus potentially exacerbating moonlight avoidance. Effects of moonlight and wind conditions on the colony activity of this species, however, is poorly understood. We investigated the phenomenon by counting the departure and arrival of birds, and measuring ambient light intensity, local wind speed, and local wind direction at a breeding colony of Streaked Shearwaters on Awashima Island, Japan. Moon phase and ambient light had no significant effect on the frequency of arrivals or departures. Frequency of departures decreased significantly with increasing wind speed, but no effect was seen on arrivals, and wind direction had no effect on arrivals or departures. Our results indicate that: (1) wind speed may play an important role in Streaked Shearwater takeoff from the colony, and (2) moonlight avoidance is a plastic trait that may diminish in large-bodied shearwaters when few diurnal aerial predators are present.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2107
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Author Min, B.; O'Keeffe, Z.; Zhang, F.
Title Whose Power Gets Cut? Using High-Frequency Satellite Images to Measure Power Supply Irregularity Type Book Whole
Year 2017 Publication Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In many parts of the developing world, access to electricity is uneven and inconsistent, characterized by frequent and long hours of power outages. Many countries now engage in systematic load shedding because of persistent power shortages. When and where electricity is provided can have important impacts on welfare and growth. But quantifying those impacts is difficult because utility-level data on power outages are rarely available and not always reliable. This paper introduces a new method of tracking power outages from outer space. This measure identifies outage-prone areas by detecting excess fluctuations in light outputs. To develop these measures, the study processed the complete historical archive of sub-orbital Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime imagery captured over South Asia on every night since 1993. The analysis computes annual estimates of the Power Supply Irregularity index for all 600,000 villages in India from 1993 to 2013. The Power Supply Irregularity index measures are consistent with ground-based measures of power supply reliability from the Indian Human Development Survey, and with feeder-level outage data from one of the largest utilities in India. The study's methods open new opportunities to study the determinants of power outages as well as their impacts on welfare.
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Publisher The World Bank Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2109
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Author Liu, Q.; Manning, A.J.; Duston, J.
Title Light intensity and suppression of nocturnal plasma melatonin in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol
Volume in press Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract The problem of early sexual maturation among farmed Arctic charr and other salmonids can be effectively reduced by 24h light overwinter, provided it is bright enough to over-ride interference from the natural daylength cycle. To determine the threshold light intensity to suppress the nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin, three groups of individually tagged fish (n=26-28/group ca. 1040g) were reared on 12h light: 12h dark (LD 12:12) and subjected to nighttime light intensities of either 50-65, 0.1-0.3 or 0 (control) lux for five months (November to April). Daytime light intensity was 720-750lx. Diel plasma melatonin profiles in both November and April were similar; mean daytime levels ranged from 20 to 100pg/ml, and nighttime levels were inversely proportional to light intensity. In the control group at 0lx, plasma melatonin increased about four-fold after lights-off, ranging between 320 and 430pg/ml. Nighttime light intensity of 0.1-0.3lx halved plasma melatonin levels to 140-220pg/ml, and 50-65lx further reduced the levels to one quarter of the control group, 68-108pg/ml. Among the lit groups, daytime plasma melatonin levels were about 20-30pg/ml, significantly lower than the nocturnal levels suggesting the diel hormonal rhythm was not completely abolished. Fish grew steadily from about 1100g to 1600g between November and April, independent of light intensity (P=.67). Overall, the study demonstrated the sensitivity of pineal melatonin hormone to different light intensities in Arctic charr.
Address Department of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Dalhousie University, Agricultural Campus, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30471350 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2111
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