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Author Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Valenzuela-Martínez, M.; Lardelli-Claret, P.; Molina-Soberanes, D.; Moreno-Roldán, E.; Jiménez-Mejías, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors related to the risk of pedestrian fatality after a crash in Spain, 1993–2013 Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Transport & Health Abbreviated Journal Journal of Transport & Health  
  Volume 12 Issue (up) Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of association between pedestrian fatalities during the first 24 h after a crash and pedestrian-, driver-, vehicle- and environment-related characteristics in Spain from 1993 to 2013.

Methods

Data were analyzed for all 203,622 traffic crashes involving a pedestrian and a motor vehicle recorded in the Spanish Registry of Road Crashes with Victims. After multiple imputation for missing values, crude (CMRR) and adjusted mortality rate ratios (AMRR) were obtained for each variable with Poisson regression models.

Results

Pedestrian risk of death after a crash increased nearly exponentially with pedestrian age. Male sex, committing an infraction and having a physical defect were also associated with a higher risk of death (AMRR 1.27, 95%CI 1.17–1.37 for physical defect). Regarding driver-related factors associated with pedestrian fatalities, visual defects (AMRR 1.21, 95%CI 1.08–1.37) and the commission of a speed infraction (AMRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.43–2.76) increased the risk. Heavy vehicles (trucks, vans, buses) and the presence of passengers were also associated with a higher risk of pedestrian death. The risk of pedestrian death was lower for crashes that occurred between 12:00 and 14:00, in good light conditions, at intersections, and when the pedestrian was on a sidewalk. Risk was higher in crashes in rural areas with fewer than 5000 inhabitants.

Conclusions

We identified several factors strongly associated with the risk of pedestrian fatality; some of these factors are analyzed here for the first time. This knowledge is potentially useful in the design and prioritization of measures intended to increase pedestrian safety.
 
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  ISSN 2214-1405 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2236  
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Author Cao, X.; Hu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Shi, F.; Zhuo, L.; Chen, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A simple self-adjusting model for correcting the blooming effects in DMSP-OLS nighttime light images Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 224 Issue (up) Pages 401-411  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Night-time light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operation Linescan System (OLS) provide important observations of human activities; however, DMSP-OLS NTL data suffer from problems such as saturation and blooming. This research developed a self-adjusting model (SEAM) to correct blooming effects in DMSP-OLS NTL data based on a spatial response function and without using any ancillary data. By assuming that the pixels adjacent to the background contain no lights (i.e., pseudo light pixels, PLPs), the blooming effect intensity, a parameter in the SEAM model, can be estimated by pixel-based regression using PLPs and their neighboring light sources. SEAM was applied to all of China, and its performance was assessed for twelve cities with different population sizes. The results show that SEAM can largely reduce the blooming effect in the original DMSP-OLS dataset and enhance its quality. The images after blooming effect correction have higher spatial similarity with Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) images and higher spatial variability than the original DMSP-OLS data. We also found that the average effective blooming distance is approximately 3.5 km in China, which may be amplified if the city is surrounded by water surfaces, and that the blooming effect intensity is positively correlated to atmospheric quality. The effectiveness of the proposed model will improve the capacity of DMSP-OLS images for mapping the urban extent and modeling socioeconomic parameters.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2239  
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Author Hu, T.; Huang, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A novel locally adaptive method for modeling the spatiotemporal dynamics of global electric power consumption based on DMSP-OLS nighttime stable light data Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Applied Energy Abbreviated Journal Applied Energy  
  Volume 240 Issue (up) Pages 778-792  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Timely and reliable estimation of electricity power consumption (EPC) is essential to the rational deployment of electricity power resources. Nighttime stable light (NSL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) have the potential to model global 1-km gridded EPC. A processing chain to estimate EPC includes: (1) NSL data correction; and (2) regression model between EPC statistics and NSL data. For the global gridded EPC estimation, the current approach is to correct the global NSL image in a uniform manner and establish the linear relationships between NSL and EPC. However, the impacts of local socioeconomic inconsistencies on the NSL correction and model establishment are not fully considered. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel locally adaptive method for global EPC estimation. Firstly, we set up two options (with or without the correction) for each local area considering the global NSL image is not saturated everywhere. Secondly, three directions (forward, backward, or average) are alternatives for the inter-annual correction to remove the discontinuity effect of NSL data. Thirdly, four optional models (linear, logarithmic, exponential, or second-order polynomial) are adopted for the EPC estimation of each local area with different socioeconomic dynamic. Finally, the options for each step constitute all candidate processing chains, from which the optimal one is adaptively chosen for each local area based on the coefficient of determination. The results demonstrate that our product outperforms the existing one, at global, continental, and national scales. Particularly, the proportion of countries/districts with a high accuracy (MARE (mean of the absolute relative error)  ≤ 10%) increases from 17.8% to 57.8% and the percentage of countries/districts with inaccurate results (MARE > 50%) decreases sharply from 23.0% to 3.7%. This product can enhance the detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of global EPC.  
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  ISSN 0306-2619 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2242  
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Author Hoglund, J.; Mitkus, M.; Olsson, P.; Lind, O.; Drews, A.; Bloch, N.I.; Kelber, A.; Strandh, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Owls lack UV-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see UV light at night: retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Vision Research Abbreviated Journal Vision Res  
  Volume 158 Issue (up) Pages 109-119  
  Keywords Animals; Vision; Birds; owls; Short-eared Owl; tawny owl; boreal owl; Long-eared Owl; Asio otus; Asio flammeus; Strix aluco; Aegolius funereus; cones; Photoreceptors  
  Abstract Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (SWS2), M cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2) and L cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS). Double cones (D) express LWS but do not contribute to colour vision. Each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in UV/V cones, but pigmented by carotenoids: galloxanthin in S, zeaxanthin in M, astaxanthin in L and a mixture in D cones. Owls (Strigiformes) are crepuscular or nocturnal birds with rod-dominated retinae and optical adaptations for high sensitivity. For eight species, the absence of functional SWS1 opsin has recently been documented, functional RH2 opsin was absent in three of these. Here we confirm the absence of SWS1 transcripts for the Long-eared owl (Asio otus) and demonstrate its absence for the Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus). All four species had transcripts of RH2, albeit with low expression. All four species express all enzymes needed to produce galloxanthin, but lack CYP2J19 expression required to produce astaxanthin from dietary precursors. We also present ocular media transmittance of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and Short-eared owl and predict spectral sensitivities of all photoreceptors of the Tawny owl. We conclude that owls, despite lacking UV/V cones, can detect UV light. This increases the sensitivity of their rod vision allowing them, for instance, to see UV-reflecting feathers as brighter signals at night.  
  Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0042-6989 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30825468 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2245  
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Author Arendt, J.; Middleton, B. url  doi
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  Title Human seasonal and circadian studies in Antarctica (Halley, 75 degrees S) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol  
  Volume 258 Issue (up) Pages 250-258  
  Keywords Human Activities; Acclimatization/*physiology; Actigraphy; Adult; Antarctic Regions; Behavior/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Darkness; Female; Heart Rate/physiology; Humans; Libido; Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Photoperiod; *Seasons; Sleep/physiology; Young Adult; *Antarctica; *Circadian; *Light; *Melatonin; *Seasonal  
  Abstract Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75 degrees S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer. Light of sufficient intensity and spectral composition serves to suppress production of melatonin and to set the circadian timing and the duration of the rhythm. In humans early observations suggested that bright (>2000 lux) white light was needed to suppress melatonin completely. Shortly thereafter winter depression (Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD) was described, and its successful treatment by an artificial summer photoperiod of bright white light, sufficient to shorten melatonin production. At Halley dim artificial light intensity during winter was measured, until 2003, at a maximum of approximately 500 lux in winter. Thus a strong seasonal and circadian time cue was absent. It seemed likely that winter depression would be common in the extended period of winter darkness and could be treated with an artificial summer photoperiod. These observations, and predictions, inspired a long series of studies regarding human seasonal and circadian status, and the effects of light treatment, in a small overwintering, isolated community, living in the same conditions for many months at Halley. We found little evidence of SAD, or change in duration of melatonin production with season. However the timing of the melatonin rhythm itself, and/or that of its metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), was used as a primary marker of seasonal, circadian and treatment changes. A substantial phase delay of melatonin in winter was advanced to summer phase by a two pulse 'skeleton' bright white light treatment. Subsequently a single morning pulse of bright white light was effective with regard to circadian phase and improved daytime performance. The circadian delay evidenced by melatonin was accompanied by delayed sleep (logs and actigraphy): poor sleep is a common complaint in Polar regions. Appropriate extra artificial light, both standard white, and blue enriched, present throughout the day, effectively countered delay in sleep timing and the aMT6s rhythm. The most important factor appeared to be the maximum light experienced. Another manifestation of the winter was a decline in self-rated libido (men only on base at this time). Women on the base showed lower aspects of physical and mental health compared to men. Free-running rhythms were seen in some subjects following night shift, but were rarely found at other times, probably because this base has strongly scheduled activity and leisure time. Complete circadian adaptation during a week of night shift, also seen in a similar situation on North Sea oil rigs, led to problems readapting back to day shift in winter, compared to summer. Here again timed light treatment was used to address the problem. Sleep, alertness and waking performance are critically dependent on optimum circadian phase. Circadian desynchrony is associated with increased risk of major disease in shift workers. These studies provide some groundwork for countering/avoiding circadian desynchrony in rather extreme conditions.  
  Address Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Electronic address: b.middleton@surrey.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28526480 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2248  
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