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Author Franziska, K.; Franz, H.; Werner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Can skyglow reduce nocturnal melatonin concentrations in Eurasian perch? Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 114324  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) changes the natural rhythm of light and darkness and can impair the biorhythms of animals, for example the nocturnal melatonin production of vertebrates, which serves as a proxy for daily physiological rhythms. Freshwater fish are exposed to ALAN in large urban and suburban areas in the form of direct light or in the form of skyglow, a diffuse brightening of the night sky through the scattered light reflected by clouds, atmospheric molecules, and particles in the air. However, investigations on the sensitivity of melatonin production of fish towards low intensities of ALAN in the range of typical skyglow are rare. Therefore, we exposed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) to nocturnal illumination levels of 0.01 lx, 0.1 lx and 1 lx and a control group with dark nights and daylight intensities of 2900 lx in all groups. After ten days of exposure to the experimental conditions, tank water was non-invasively sampled every 3 h over a 24 h period and melatonin was measured by ELISA. Melatonin was gradually reduced in all treatments with increasing intensity of ALAN whereas rhythmicity was maintained in all treatment groups although at 1 lx not all evaluated parameters confirmed rhythmicity. These results show a high sensitivity of Eurasian perch towards ALAN indicating that low light intensities of 0.01 lx and 0.1 lx as they occur in urban and suburban areas in the form of skyglow can affect the physiology of Eurasian perch. Furthermore, we highlight how this may impact perch in their sensitivity towards lunar rhythms and the role of skyglow for biorhythms of temperate freshwater fish.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2847  
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Author Yang, Y.; Liu, Q.; Wang, T.; Pan, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution disrupts molecular clock in avian species: A power-calibrated meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 114206  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Nighttime lighting is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental stress on plants and animals. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may disrupt circadian rhythm. However, studies involved in molecular biology, e.g. disruption of molecular circadian clock by light pollution, always have a small sample sizes. The small sample sizes result in a low statistical power and difficulties in replicating prior results. Here, a power-calibrated meta-analysis was developed to overcome these weakness. The results demonstrated that effect size of 2.48 in clock genes induced by artificial light would promised the reproducibility of the results as high as 80%. Long wavelength light entrained the positive core clock genes and negative core clock genes with robust circadian rhythmic expression, whereas some of those genes, e.g. cClock, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2, and cPer3, were arrhythmic in short wavelength light. Artificial light entrained the transcriptional-translational feedback loop of molecular clock in a wavelength-dependent manner. The expression positive core clock genes (cBmal1, cBmal2 and cClock), cAanat gene and melatonin were the greatest in short wavelength light and the lowest in long wavelength light. However, for negative regulators of molecular clock (cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3), the greatest were in long wavelength light and the lowest were in short wavelength light. Our study opens up new opportunities to understand and strengthen conclusions based on the studies with small sample sizes and provides further insight about the disrupting in circadian rhythm by short wavelength light. Especially, the global lighting is shifting from “yellow” sodium lamps toward blue-enriched “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs).  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2852  
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Author Gomes, D.G.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Orb-weaving spiders are fewer but larger and catch more prey in lit bridge panels from a natural artificial light experiment Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages e8808  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is rapidly changing the sensory world. While evidence is accumulating for how insects are affected, it is not clear how this impacts higher trophic levels that feed on insect communities. Spiders are important insect predators that have recently been shown to have increased abundance in urban areas, but have shown mixed responses to artificial light. On a single bridge with alternating artificially lit and unlit sections, I measured changes in the orb-weaving spider Larinioides sclopetarius (Araneidae) web abundance, web-building behavior, prey-capture, and body condition. In artificially lit conditions, spiders caught more prey with smaller webs, and had higher body conditions. However, there were fewer spiders with active webs in those lit areas. This suggests that either spiders were not taking advantage of an ecological insect trap, perhaps due to an increased risk of becoming prey themselves, or were satiated, and thus not as active within these habitats. The results from this natural experiment may have important consequences for both insects and spiders in urban areas under artificial lighting conditions.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2867  
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Author Ayalon, I.; de Barros Marangoni, L.F.; Benichou, J.I.C.; Avisar, D.; Levy, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Red Sea corals under Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) undergo oxidative stress and photosynthetic impairment Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 4194-4207  
  Keywords (up) Animals; *Anthozoa; Coral Reefs; Ecosystem; Indian Ocean; Oxidative Stress; Photosynthesis; Alan; Ros; corals; light pollution; photosynthesis; physiology  
  Abstract Coral reefs represent the most diverse marine ecosystem on the planet, yet they are undergoing an unprecedented decline due to a combination of increasing global and local stressors. Despite the wealth of research investigating these stressors, Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) or “ecological light pollution” represents an emerging threat that has received little attention in the context of coral reefs, despite the potential of disrupting the chronobiology, physiology, behavior, and other biological processes of coral reef organisms. Scleractinian corals, the framework builders of coral reefs, depend on lunar illumination cues to synchronize their biological rhythms such as behavior, reproduction and physiology. While, light pollution (POL) may mask and lead de-synchronization of these biological rhythms process. To reveal if ALAN impacts coral physiology, we have studied two coral species, Acropora eurystoma and Pocillopora damicornis, from the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba, Red Sea, which is undergoing urban development that has led to severe POL at night. Our two experimental design data revealed that corals exposed to ALAN face an oxidative stress condition, show lower photosynthesis performances measured by electron transport rate (ETR), as well as changes in chlorophyll and algae density parameters. Testing different lights such as Blue LED and White LED spectrum showed more extreme impact in comparison to Yellow LEDs on coral physiology. The finding of this work sheds light on the emerging threat of POL and the impacts on the biology and ecology of Scleractinian corals, and will help to formulate specific management implementations to mitigate its potentially harmful impacts.  
  Address Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31512309; PMCID:PMC6900201 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2809  
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Author Straka,T. M., Wolf, M., Gras, P., Buchholz, S., & Voigt, C. C. doi  openurl
  Title Tree Cover Mediates the Effect of Artificial Light on Urban Bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 91  
  Keywords (up) Animals; ALAN; bats; canopy cover; chiroptera; light-emitting diodes; LED; trees; Ultraviolet; urban  
  Abstract With urban areas growing worldwide, so does artificial light at night (ALAN) which negatively affects many nocturnal animals, including bats. The response of bats to ALAN ranges from some opportunistic species taking advantage of insect aggregations around street lamps, particularly those emitting ultraviolet (UV) light, to others avoiding lit areas at all. Tree cover has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of ALAN on bats by shielding areas against light scatter. Here, we investigated the effect of tree cover on the relationship between ALAN and bats in Berlin, Germany. In particular, we asked if this interaction varies with the UV light spectrum of street lamps and also across urban bat species. We expected trees next to street lamps to block ALAN, making the adjacent habitat more suitable for all species, irrespective of the wavelength spectrum of the light source. Additionally, we expected UV emitting lights next to trees to attract insects and thus, opportunistic bats. In summer 2017, we recorded bat activity at 22 green open spaces in Berlin using automated ultrasonic detectors. We analyzed bat activity patterns and landscape variables (number of street lamps with and without UV light emission, an estimate of light pollution, and tree cover density around each recording site within different spatial scales) using generalized linear mixed-effects models with a negative binomial distribution. We found a species-specific response of bats to street lamps with and without UV light, providing a more detailed picture of ALAN impacts than simply total light radiance. Moreover, we found that dense tree cover dampened the negative effect of street lamps without UV for open-space foraging bats of the genera Nyctalus, Eptesicus, and Vespertilio, yet it amplified the already existing negative or positive effect of street lamps with or without UV on Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, and Myotis spp. Our study underpins the importance of minimizing artificial light at night close to vegetation, particularly for bats adapted to spatial complexity in the environment (i.e., clutter-adapted species), and to increase dense vegetation in urban landscape to provide, besides roosting opportunities, protection against ALAN for open-space foraging bats in city landscapes.  
  Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2302  
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