|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Rosolen, S.-G.; Brugère-Picoux, J.; Leroy, E.
Title Le chat est-il une victime collatérale de la pollution lumineuse? // Is the cat a victim of light pollution? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France Abbreviated Journal Bul. de l'Ac. Vét. de France
Volume in press Issue 2 Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract There are more than 75 million cats in Europe, a number that is constantly increasing. It is an animal that adapts very well to a reduced space and can live alone. However, it is also a preda-tor, a behavior that requires frequent wandering away from its familiar environment. Along with the dog, it is the most medicalized animal species and whose life expectancy is increasing. Living in close contact with man, it shares its environment, and is thus subjected to the same environmental impacts such as light pollution : reduction of darkness in time and space and its replacement by artificial light. A recent study has shown that 45% of sedentary cats are overweight or even obese. We hypothesize that among the factors favouring obesity, the extension of domestic lighting would play an important role. In human, obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, which is a public health problem. The same is true for obese cats. As a clinical expression of a homologous human disease, it is THE animal model of type 2 diabetes so much sought after by the scientific community. Light pollution presents another risk for the wandering cat: the probability of encountering wild animals (rodents, mus-telids, birds, etc.) which, especially during the confinement period, are attracted by the space released by humans. This risk is important to consider because of the cat’s sensitivity to coronaviruses, in particular Sars-CoV-2, which it is likely to contract from with the wild animals that it may encounter. In the context of a pandemic situation, the question of unrestricted itinerancy of cats must be addressed. Cats should only be allowed to roam freely when they are vaccinated and undergo regular anti-parasite treatments.

//

Il y a plus de 75 millions de chats en Europe et leur nombre ne cesse d’augmenter. C’est un animal qui s’accommode très bien d’un espace réduit, qui peut rester seul mais c’est aussi un chasseur qui peut demander à sortir fréquemment de son environnement familier. Avec le chien, c’est l’espèce animale de compagnie la plus médicalisée et dont l’espérance de vie augmente. Il vit étroitement au contact de l’homme, partage son environnement et est soumis aux mêmes impacts environnementaux que ce der-nier, notamment la pollution lumineuse ; c’est à dire la réduction de la part d’obscurité en temps et en espace et son remplacement par des lumières artificielles. Une étude récente a montré que 45% des chats sédentaires sont en surpoids, voire obèses. Nous émettons l’hypothèse que, parmi les facteurs favorisant l’obésité, l’allongement de l’éclairage domestique jouerait un rôle important. Chez l’homme, l’obésité est un facteur de risque d’apparition du diabète (type 2) qui est un problème de santé publique. Chez le chat obèse, il en est de même. Exprimant cliniquement la maladie humaine homologue c’est LE modèle animal de diabète de type 2 tant recherché par la communauté scientifique. La pollution lumineuse fait courir un autre risque au chat qui se promène : la probabilité de rencontre avec la faune sauvage (ron-geurs, mustélidés, oiseaux, etc.) qui, notamment en cas de confinement, est attirée par l’espace libéré par l’homme. Ce risque est d’autant plus à prendre en considération que le chat est une espèce sensible aux coronaviroses, notamment le Sars-CoV-2 qu’il pourrait contracter au contact de la faune sauvage. Dans un contexte de pandémie, la question de la libre circulation des chats doit se poser et ne devraient sortir librement que les animaux vaccinés et subissant régulièrement des traitements antiparasitaires.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language French Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2259-2385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3053
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Panagiotou, M.; Rohling, J.H.T.; Deboer, T.
Title Sleep Network Deterioration as a Function of Dim-Light-At-Night Exposure Duration in a Mouse Model Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Clocks & Sleep Abbreviated Journal Clocks & Sleep
Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 308-324
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Artificial light, despite its widespread and valuable use, has been associated withdeterioration of health and well-being, including altered circadian timing and sleep disturbances,particularly in nocturnal exposure. Recent findings from our lab reveal significant sleep andsleep electroencephalogram (EEG) changes owing to three months exposure to dim-light-at-night(DLAN). Aiming to further explore the detrimental effects of DLAN exposure, in the present study,we continuously recorded sleep EEG and the electromyogram for baseline 24-h and following 6-h sleepdeprivation in a varied DLAN duration scheme. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a 12:12 h light:DLANcycle (75lux:5lux) vs. a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (75lux:0lux) for one day, one week, and one month.Our results show that sleep was already affected by a mere day of DLAN exposure with additionalcomplications emerging with increasing DLAN exposure duration, such as the gradual delay ofthe daily 24-h vigilance state rhythms. We conducted detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on thelocomotor activity data following 1-month and 3-month DLAN exposure, and a significantly lesshealthy rest-activity pattern, based on the decreased alpha values, was found in both conditionscompared to the control light-dark. Taking into account the behavioral, sleep and the sleep EEGparameters, our data suggest that DLAN exposure, even in the shortest duration, induces deleteriouseffects; nevertheless, potential compensatory mechanisms render the organism partly adjustable andable to cope. We think that, for this reason, our data do not always depict linear divergence amonggroups, as compared with control conditions. Chronic DLAN exposure impacts the sleep regulatorysystem, but also brain integrity, diminishing its adaptability and reactivity, especially apparent in thesleep EEG alterations and particular low alpha values following DFA.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2624-5175 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3078
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Masis-Vargas, A.; Ritsema, W.I.G.R.; Mendoza, J.; Kalsbeek, A.
Title Metabolic Effects of Light at Night are Time- and Wavelength-Dependent in Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Abbreviated Journal Obesity (Silver Spring)
Volume 28 Suppl 1 Issue Pages S114-S125
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are most sensitive to short wavelengths and reach brain regions that modulate biological rhythms and energy metabolism. The increased exposure nowadays to artificial light at night (ALAN), especially short wavelengths, perturbs our synchronization with the 24-hour solar cycle. Here, the time- and wavelength dependence of the metabolic effects of ALAN are investigated. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to white, blue, or green light at different time points during the dark phase. Locomotor activity, energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and food intake were recorded. Brains, livers, and blood were collected. RESULTS: All wavelengths decreased locomotor activity regardless of time of exposure, but changes in energy expenditure were dependent on the time of exposure. Blue and green light reduced RER at Zeitgeber time 16-18 without changing food intake. Blue light increased period 1 (Per1) gene expression in the liver, while green and white light increased Per2. Blue light decreased plasma glucose and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression in the liver. All wavelengths increased c-Fos activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but blue and green light decreased c-Fos activity in the paraventricular nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: ALAN affects locomotor activity, energy expenditure, RER, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and expression of clock and metabolic genes in the liver depending on the time of day and wavelength.
Address Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1930-7381 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32700824 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3081
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Prabhat, A.; Malik, I.; Jha, N.A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V.
Title Developmental effects of constant light on circadian behaviour and gene expressions in zebra finches: Insights into mechanisms of metabolic adaptation to aperiodic environment in diurnal animals Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Volume in press Issue Pages 111995
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract A most crucial feature of biological adaptation is the maintenance of a close temporal relationship of behaviour and physiology with prevailing 24-h light-dark environment, which is rapidly changing with increasing nighttime illumination. This study investigated developmental effects of the loss of night on circadian behaviour, metabolism and gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches born and raised under LL, with controls on 12 L:12D. Birds under LD were entrained, and showed normal body mass and a significant 24-h rhythm in both activity-rest pattern and mRNA expression of candidate genes that we measured. But, under LL, birds gained weight and accumulated lipid in the liver. Intriguingly, at the end of the experiment, the majority (4/5th) of birds under LL were rhythmic in activity despite arrhythmic expression in the hypothalamus of c-Fos (neuronal activity), Rhodopsin and Mel1-a genes (light perception), and clock genes (Bmal1, Per2 and Rev-erb β). In peripheral tissues, LL induced variable clock gene expressions. Whereas 24-h mRNA rhythm was abolished for Bmal1 in both liver and gut, it persisted for Per2 and Rev-erb β in liver, and for Per2 in gut. Further, we found under LL, the loss of 24-h rhythm in hepatic expression of Fasn and Cd36/Fat (biosynthesis and its uptake), and gut expression of Sglt1, Glut5, Cd36 and Pept1 (nutrient absorption) genes. As compared to LD, baseline mRNA levels of Fasn and Cd36 genes were attenuated under LL. Among major transporter genes, Sglt1 (glucose) and Cd36 (fat) genes were arrhythmic, while Glut5 (glucose) and Pept1 (protein) genes were rhythmic but with phase differences under LL, compared to LD. These results demonstrate dissociation of circadian behaviour from clock gene rhythms, and provide molecular insights into possible mechanisms at different levels (behaviour and physiology) that diurnal animals might employ in order to adapt to an emerging overly illuminated-night urban environment.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3085
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wei, L.; Yue, F.; Xing, L.; Wu, S.; Shi, Y.; Li, J.; Xiang, X.; Lam, S.M.; Shui, G.; Russell, R.; Zhang, D.
Title Constant Light Exposure Alters Gut Microbiota and Promotes the Progression of Steatohepatitis in High Fat Diet Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Front. Microbiol.
Volume 11 Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a significant health concern worldwide. With the progression of urbanization, light pollution may be a previously unrecognized risk factor for NAFLD/NASH development. However, the role of light pollution on NAFLD is insufficiently understood, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interestingly, recent studies indicate the gut microbiota affects NAFLD/NASH development. Therefore, the present study explored effects of constant light exposure on NAFLD and its related microbiotic mechanisms.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight SD male rats were divided into four groups (n = 7 each): rats fed a normal chow diet, and exposed to standard light-dark cycle (ND-LD); rats fed a normal chow diet, and exposed to constant light (ND-LL); rats fed a high fat diet, and exposed to standard light-dark cycle (HFD-LD); and rats on a high fat diet, and exposed to constant light (HFD-LL). Body weight, hepatic pathophysiology, gut microbiota, and short/medium chain fatty acids in colon contents, serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and liver LPS-binding protein (LBP) mRNA expression were documented post intervention and compared among groups.

Result: In normal chow fed groups, rats exposed to constant light displayed glucose abnormalities and dyslipidemia. In HFD-fed rats, constant light exposure exacerbated glucose abnormalities, insulin resistance, inflammation, and liver steatohepatitis. Constant light exposure altered composition of gut microbiota in both normal chow and HFD fed rats. Compared with HFD-LD group, HFD-LL rats displayed less Butyricicoccus, Clostridium, and Turicibacter, butyrate levels in colon contents, decreased colon expression of occludin-1 and zonula occluden−1 (ZO-1), and increased serum LPS and liver LBP mRNA expression.

Conclusion: Constant light exposure impacts gut microbiota and its metabolic products, impairs gut barrier function and gut-liver axis, promotes NAFLD/NASH progression in HFD rats.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-302X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3099
Permanent link to this record