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Author Howard, L. O.
Title Butterflies attracted to light at night Type Journal Article
Year 1899 Publication Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3151
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Author Péter Á.; Seress G.; Sándor K.; Vincze E.; Klucsik K. P.; Liker A.
Title The effect of artificial light at night on the biomass of caterpillars feeding in urban tree canopies Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Alternation of day and night is the oldest cycle on Earth, which is increasingly disturbed by the accelerating rate of urbanization and technological development. Despite the ubiquity of light pollution in cities, many aspects of its influence on urban ecosystems are still poorly understood. Here we studied the effect of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the biomass of arboreal caterpillar populations, which are a major component of the diet of many insectivorous animals. We predicted that increasing ALAN intensity is associated with reduced caterpillar biomass, because ALAN may increase predation risk for both caterpillars and adult lepidopterans (i.e. moths), and can also hinder the moths’ reproductive rate. We estimated caterpillar biomass from frass samples (n = 3061) collected from 36 focal trees in two cities in Hungary during four consecutive years. To quantify ALAN we measured light intensity during night at each focal tree (range of illumination: 0.69–3.18 lx). We found that caterpillar biomass of individual trees was repeatable over the four years. This temporal consistency in prey biomass production may be important for birds because it can help predict territory quality, especially in cities where caterpillar abundance is generally low. Our results did not support the negative effect of ALAN on urban caterpillar populations, because ALAN intensity was not related to caterpillar biomass, and this lack of effect was consistent between study sites and tree species. We suggest that the effect of ALAN on urban caterpillar biomass is either weak and thus can be masked by other, local environmental factors, or light pollution may have antagonistic effects acting during different stages of the lepidopteran life cycle. Another explanation could be that even the lower levels of our sites’ public lighting are strong enough to cause serious detrimental effects for caterpillars, resulting in their uniformly low biomass.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3156
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Author Ayalon, I.; de Barros Marangoni, L.F.; Benichou, J.I.C.; Avisar, D.; Levy, O.
Title Red Sea corals under Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) undergo oxidative stress and photosynthetic impairment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 4194-4207
Keywords (up) Animals; *Anthozoa; Coral Reefs; Ecosystem; Indian Ocean; Oxidative Stress; Photosynthesis; Alan; Ros; corals; light pollution; photosynthesis; physiology
Abstract Coral reefs represent the most diverse marine ecosystem on the planet, yet they are undergoing an unprecedented decline due to a combination of increasing global and local stressors. Despite the wealth of research investigating these stressors, Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN) or “ecological light pollution” represents an emerging threat that has received little attention in the context of coral reefs, despite the potential of disrupting the chronobiology, physiology, behavior, and other biological processes of coral reef organisms. Scleractinian corals, the framework builders of coral reefs, depend on lunar illumination cues to synchronize their biological rhythms such as behavior, reproduction and physiology. While, light pollution (POL) may mask and lead de-synchronization of these biological rhythms process. To reveal if ALAN impacts coral physiology, we have studied two coral species, Acropora eurystoma and Pocillopora damicornis, from the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba, Red Sea, which is undergoing urban development that has led to severe POL at night. Our two experimental design data revealed that corals exposed to ALAN face an oxidative stress condition, show lower photosynthesis performances measured by electron transport rate (ETR), as well as changes in chlorophyll and algae density parameters. Testing different lights such as Blue LED and White LED spectrum showed more extreme impact in comparison to Yellow LEDs on coral physiology. The finding of this work sheds light on the emerging threat of POL and the impacts on the biology and ecology of Scleractinian corals, and will help to formulate specific management implementations to mitigate its potentially harmful impacts.
Address Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:31512309; PMCID:PMC6900201 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2809
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Author Gatford, K.L.; Kennaway, D.J.; Liu, H.; Kleemann, D.O.; Kuchel, T.R.; Varcoe, T.J.
Title Simulated shift work disrupts maternal circadian rhythms and metabolism, and increases gestation length in sheep Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume 597 Issue 7 Pages 1889-1904
Keywords (up) Animals; *Circadian Rhythm; Female; Fetal Development; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Animal/physiology; Pregnancy, Multiple; Sheep/*physiology; *Shift Work Schedule; Sleep/*physiology; *circadian rhythms; *fetus; *maternal; *pregnancy; *sheep; *shift work
Abstract KEY POINTS: Shift work impairs metabolic health, although its effects during pregnancy are not well understood We evaluated the effects of a simulated shift work protocol for one-third, two-thirds or all of pregnancy on maternal and pregnancy outcomes in sheep. Simulated shift work changed the timing of activity, disrupted hormonal and cellular rhythms, and impaired maternal glucose tolerance during early pregnancy. Gestation length was increased in twin pregnancies, whereas singleton lambs were lighter at a given gestational age if mothers were subjected to shift work conditions in the first one-third of pregnancy. Exposure to rotating night and day shifts, even if only in early pregnancy, may adversely affect maternal metabolic and pregnancy outcomes. ABSTRACT: Shift workers are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity; however, the impact during pregnancy on maternal metabolism is unknown. Using a large animal model, we assessed the impact of simulated shift work (SSW) exposure during pregnancy on maternal circadian rhythms, glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcomes. Following mating, ewes were randomly allocated to a control photoperiod (CON 12 h light, 12 h dark) or to SSW, where the timing of light exposure and food presentation was reversed twice each week for one-third, two-thirds or all of pregnancy. Maternal behaviour followed SSW cycles with increased activity during light exposure and feeding. Melatonin rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the photoperiod shift, whereas peripheral circadian rhythms were arrhythmic. SSW impaired glucose tolerance (+29%, P = 0.019) and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (+32%, P = 0.018) in ewes with a singleton fetus in early but not late gestation. SSW exposure did not alter rates of miscarriage or stillbirth, although it extended gestation length in twin pregnancies (+2.4 days, P = 0.032). Relative to gestational age, birth weight was lower in singleton progeny of SSW than CON ewes (-476 g, P = 0.016). These results have implications for the large number of women currently engaged in shift work, and further studies are required to determine progeny health impacts.
Address Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
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ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30671970; PMCID:PMC6441904 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3136
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Author Richardson, M.E.S.; Parkins, S.; Kaneza, I.; Dauphin, A.-C.
Title Jet Lag Recovery and Memory Functions Are Correlated with Direct Light Effects on Locomotion Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume in press Issue Pages 748730420947589
Keywords (up) Animals; activity; behavior; entrainment; jet lag; light therapy; masking; memory
Abstract Jet lag is a circadian disruption that affects millions of people, resulting, among other things, in extreme sleepiness and memory loss. The hazardous implications of such effects are evident in situations in which focus and attention are required. Remarkably, there is a limited understanding of how jet lag recovery and associated memory loss vary year round under different photoperiods. Here we show, using different cycles representing winter, summer, and equinox in male mice, that jet lag recovery and memory vary significantly with photoperiod changes. We uncover a positive correlation of acute light effects on circadian-driven locomotion (known as negative masking) with photoentrainment speed and memory enhancement during jet lag. Specifically, we show that enhancing or reducing negative masking is correlated with better or worse memory performance, respectively. This study indicates that in addition to timed-light exposure for phase shifting, the negative masking response could also be biologically relevant when designing effective treatments of jet lag.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, Oakwood University, Huntsville, Alabama
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ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:32877295 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3130
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