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Author Sanotra, G.S.; Lund, J.D.; Vestergaard, K.S.
Title Influence of light-dark schedules and stocking density on behaviour, risk of leg problems and occurrence of chronic fear in broilers Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication British Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 344-354
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract 1. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the effect of light-dark schedules on the walking ability, the risk of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) as well as the duration of tonic immobility (TI) reactions in commercial broiler flocks and (2) the effect of a daily dark period and reduced density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. 2. Experiment 1. Group 1 had a 2 to 8 h daily dark period from 2 to 26 d of age (light-dark programme A) at a stocking density of 28.4 chicks/m2. Group 2 had 8 h of darkness daily from 2 to 38 d of age (light-dark programme B) at 24 chicks/m2. The control group had 24 h continuous light at 28.4 chicks/m2. 3. Experiment 2. Behaviour was studied with and without a daily 8 h dark period and at high (30 chicks/m2) and low (18 chicks/m2) stocking densities. 4. Programme B reduced the prevalence of impaired walking ability, corresponding to gait score > 2, when compared with controls. The effect on walking ability corresponding to gait score > 0 approached significance. 5. Both light-dark programmes reduced the occurrence of TD. Programme B (combined with reduced stocking density), however, had the greater effect. 6. Both light-dark programmes reduced the duration of TI, compared with controls (mean = 426 s) Programme B resulted in a larger reduction (alpha = -156.9 s) than programme A (alpha = -117.0). 7. The proportions of chicks drinking, eating, pecking, scratching, standing and performing vertical wing-shakes increased--both when the 8 h dark period and the reduced stocking density were applied separately and in combination (experiment 2). 8. For all behaviours, except standing, the effect of the dark period was largest in broilers kept at the high stocking density (d 40).
Address Department of Animal Science and Animal Health, Division of Ethology and Health, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Groennegaardsvej 8, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. sgs@kvl.dk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12195793 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2169
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Author Caorsi, V.; Sprau, P.; Zollinger, S.A.; Brumm, H.
Title Nocturnal resting behaviour in urban great tits and its relation to anthropogenic disturbance and microclimate Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The ecological novelty of urbanisation poses many challenges to animals. We investigated whether anthropogenic disturbance (artificial light at night and noise) and abiotic factors in cities (temperature and humidity) predict nocturnal activity and rest in free-living urban great tits (Parus major). Our study is the first to relate nocturnal rest in wild birds to levels of noise pollution during the night, an issue that has been shown to be particularly damaging to human health. Unlike previous work on nocturnal behaviour of urban birds, we considered the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance and urban microclimate to acknowledge that the umwelt of an animal is composed of multiple environmental variables. Using infrared cameras, we observed the nocturnal resting behaviour as a proxy for sleep in 17 birds in nest boxes deployed across the city of Munich, Germany. Although we found marked differences in resting behaviour between individuals, this variation was not related to the measured environmental factors. This finding contrasts earlier studies that reported nocturnal resting behaviour of birds to vary with temperature and light exposure. Although we did not find evidence that urban environmental factors disrupt resting behaviour in great tits, their sleep might still be impaired by the anthropogenic disturbances. To elucidate this issue, further studies are necessary that, for instance, measure brain activity.
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Corporate Author Thesis
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2185
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Author Desouhant, E.; Gomes, E.; Mondy, N.; Amat, I.
Title Mechanistic, ecological, and evolutionary consequences of artificial light at night for insects: review and prospective Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Abbreviated Journal Entomol Exp Appl
Volume 167 Issue 1 Pages 37-58
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The alternation of light and dark periods on a daily or seasonal time scale is of utmost importance for the synchronization of physiological and behavioral processes in the environment. For the last 2 decades, artificial light at night (ALAN) has strongly increased worldwide, disrupting the photoperiod and its related physiological processes, and impacting the survival and reproduction of wild animals. ALAN is now considered as a major concern for biodiversity and human health. Here, we present why insects are relevant biological models to investigate the impact of ALAN. First the phenotypic responses to ALAN and their underpinning mechanisms are reviewed. The consequences for population dynamics, and the community composition and functioning are described in the second part. Because ALAN provides new and widespread selective pressure, we inventory evolutionary changes in response to this anthropogenic change. Finally, we identify promising future avenues, focusing on the necessity of understanding evolutionary processes that could help stakeholders consider darkness as a resource to preserve biodiversity as well as numerous ecosystem services in which insects are involved.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-8703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2195
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Author Durrant, J.; Green, M.P.; Jones, T.M.
Title Dim artificial light at night reduces the cellular immune response of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Insect Science Abbreviated Journal Insect Sci
Volume in press Issue Pages 744-7917.12665
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract A functioning immune system is crucial for protection against disease and illness, yet increasing evidence suggests that species living in urban areas could be suffering from immune suppression, due to the presence of artificial light at night (ALAN). This study examined the effects of ecologically relevant levels of ALAN on three key measures of immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity, and phenoloxidase activity) using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We reared crickets under an ecologically relevant daily light-cycle consisting of 12 hr bright daylight (2600 lx) followed by either 12 h darkness (0 lx) or dim environmentally-relevant ALAN (1, 10, 100 lx), and then assessed immune function at multiple time points throughout adult life using haemolymph samples. We found that the presence of ALAN had a clear negative effect on haemocytes, while the effects on lytic activity and phenoloxidase activity were more complex or largely unaffected by ALAN. Furthermore, the effects of lifelong exposure to ALAN of 1 lx were comparable to those of 10 and 100 lx. Our data suggest that the effects of ALAN could be large and widespread, and such reductions in the core immune response of individuals will likely have greater consequences for fitness and survival under more malign conditions, such as those of the natural environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address The School of BioSciences, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1672-9609 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30720239 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2196
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Author Farghly, M.F.A.; Mahrose, K.M.; Rehman, Z.U.; Yu, S.; Abdelfattah, M.G.; El-Garhy, O.H.
Title Intermittent lighting regime as a tool to enhance egg production and eggshell thickness in Rhode Island Red laying hens Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Poult Sci
Volume 98 Issue 6 Pages 2459–2465
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Influences of intermittent light regime as a tool to enhance egg production, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens were investigated. A total of 270 hens of Rhode Island Red (during 20 to 36 wk of age) were used to investigate the effects of intermittent light regime in completely randomized design. The birds were divided into 3 equal groups (6 replicates of 15 birds each) and housed in floor pens. The first group was served as non-treated control (C) and was exposed to continuous and constant light for 16 h light/day throughout the experimental period. Whereas, birds of the other groups were exposed to intermittent lights for 20 min/h + 40 min of constant light (T1; FLASH20) and 40 min/h + 20 min of constant light (T2; FLASH40) during the 16 h of light period. Hens of T1 group showed significantly (P </= 0.05) the highest concentration of total antioxidant capacity and the lowest one of malondialdehyde in comparison with the other groups. Hens of T1 group had significantly (P </= 0.05) the greatest egg laying rate and egg mass in comparison with the other counterparts. Feed consumption was similar in the groups under study. Hens exposed to FLASH20 had the lowest (P </= 0.05) FCR when compared with the other treatments. Eggs produced from hens exposed to FLASH20 had the highest value of shell thickness followed by the control and then that of those exposed to FLASH40. There were insignificant differences among the treatments in body weight of hens and all of other egg quality and egg problem traits. In conclusion, intermittent light regime of 20 min/h was the most efficient in comparison with the other ones. Finally, intermittent light regime of 20 min/h during laying period (during 20 to 36 wk of age) is highly recommended.
Address Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Qalubia, Egypt
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0032-5791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30715501 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2206
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