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Author Farnworth, B.; Meitern, R.; Innes, J.; Waas, J.R.
Title Increasing predation risk with light reduces speed, exploration and visit duration of invasive ship rats (Rattus rattus) Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 3739
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Exploiting predation cues to deter pests remains an untapped management tool for conservationists. We examined foraging and movement patterns of 20 wild ship rats (Rattus rattus) within a large, outdoor 'U maze' that was either illuminated or dark to assess if light (an indirect predation cue) could deter rodents from ecologically vulnerable locations. Light did not alter rats' foraging behaviour (latency to approach seed tray, visits to seed tray, time per visit to seed tray, total foraging duration, foraging rate) within the experimental resource patch but three of seven movement behaviours were significantly impaired (53% fewer visits to the maze, 70% less exploration within the maze, 40% slower movement within the maze). The total time males spent exposed to illumination also declined by 45 minutes per night, unlike females. Individual visits tended to be longer under illumination, but the latency to visit and the latency to cross through the U maze were unaffected by illumination. Elevating predation risk with illumination may be a useful pest management technique for reducing ship rat activity, particularly in island ecosystems where controlling mammalian predators is paramount to preserving biodiversity.
Address Biological Sciences, School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag, 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30842448; PMCID:PMC6403350 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2250
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Author Shymanovich, T.; Faw, L.; Hajhashemi, N.; Teague, J.; Schal, C.; Ponnusamy, L.; Apperson, C.S.; Hatano, E.; Wasserberg, G.
Title Diel periodicity and visual cues guide oviposition behavior in Phlebotomus papatasi, vector of old-world cutaneous leishmaniasis Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Abbreviated Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages e0007165
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of human leishmaniases, important neglected tropical diseases. In this study, we investigated diel patterns of oviposition behavior, effects of visual cues on oviposition-site selection, and whether these affect the attraction of gravid Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), the vector of old-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, to olfactory cues from oviposition sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate these questions, we conducted a series of experiments using attraction and oviposition assays within free-flight test chambers containing gravid females entrained under a 14:10 hrs light:dark photoperiod. By replacing sticky-screens or moist filter papers every three hours, we showed that oviposition site search occurs mainly in the latest part of the night whereas peak oviposition occurs during the early part of the night. Behavioral responses to olfactory oviposition cues are regulated by time-of-day and can be disrupted by transient exposure to a constant darkness photoperiod. Gravid females, but not any other stage, age, or sex, were attracted to dark, round oviposition jars, possibly resembling rodent burrow openings. This visual attraction disappeared in the absence of an illumination source. Egg deposition rate was not affected by jar color. Olfactory cues had the strongest effect when the visual cues were minimal. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study showed, for the first time, that visual cues in the form of oviposition-site color, lighting level, and photoperiod are important in guiding the oviposition behavior of phlebotomine sand flies. Furthermore, such visual cues could modify the flies' sensitivity to olfactory oviposition cues. Our results suggest that chemosensory and visual cues are complementary, with visual cues used to orient gravid females towards oviposition sites, possibly at long- to medium-ranges during crepuscular periods, while olfactory cues are used to approach the burrow in darkness and assess its suitability at close-range. Implications to sand fly control are discussed.
Address Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 235 Eberhart Bldg., Greensboro, North Carolina, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1935-2727 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30835733 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2251
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Author Cochard, P.; Galstian, T.; Cloutier, C.
Title The proportion of blue light affects parasitoid wasp behavior in LED-extended photoperiod in greenhouses: Increased parasitism and offspring sex ratio bias Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Control Abbreviated Journal Biological Control
Volume 133 Issue Pages 9-17
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The increasing use of specific wavelengths involving light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under greenhouses enables to overcome the lack of light during winter months, helping crops photosynthesis or vegetative growth. However, modification of the light environment as well as the photoperiod may also alter directly or indirectly the activity of both beneficial and pest insects that depend on plants. Here, we submitted the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi and its main host the pea aphid, to 4 ratios of red(R): blue(B) LEDs used to lengthen the photoperiod inside a growth chamber. We recorded the parasitism rate of aphids and the sex ratio of newly emerged wasps to evaluate if A. ervi could remain an efficient biological control agent under modified light environments. We found that increasing the 8 h of photophase to 16 h by supplementing with R/B LEDs increased the daily parasitic activity of the wasp as well as their egg laying behavior. Under the 100R light supplement, about 80% of the emerged adults were males, against 50% under 25R:75B light treatment. These results indicate that A. ervi remains a good biological control agent when the light environment is modified. However, the use of red light to extend the photophase has the potential to negatively affect population dynamics of these parasitoids due to its male-bias impact on the sex ratio.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1049-9644 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2253
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Author Rebke, M.; Dierschke, V.; Weiner, C.N.; Aumüller, R.; Hill, K.; Hill, R.
Title Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume 233 Issue Pages 220-227
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract A growing number of offshore wind farms have led to a tremendous increase in artificial lighting in the marine environment. This study disentangles the connection of light characteristics, which potentially influence the reaction of nocturnally migrating passerines to artificial illumination under different cloud cover conditions. In a spotlight experiment on a North Sea island, birds were exposed to combinations of light colour (red, yellow, green, blue, white), intensity (half, full) and blinking mode (intermittent, continuous) while measuring their number close to the light source with thermal imaging cameras.

We found that no light variant was constantly avoided by nocturnally migrating passerines crossing the sea. The number of birds did neither differ between observation periods with blinking light of different colours nor compared to darkness. While intensity did not influence the number attracted, birds were drawn more towards continuous than towards blinking illumination, when stars were not visible. Red continuous light was the only exception that did not differ from the blinking counterpart. Continuous green, blue and white light attracted significantly more birds than continuous red light in overcast situations.

Our results suggest that light sources offshore should be restricted to a minimum, but if lighting is needed, blinking light is to be preferred over continuous light, and if continuous light is required, red light should be applied.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2255
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Author Murphy, B.A.
Title Circadian and circannual regulation in the horse: Internal timing in an elite athlete Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Biological rhythms evolved to provide temporal coordination across all tissues and organs and allow synchronisation of physiology with predictable environmental cycles. Most important of these are circadian and circannual rhythms, primarily regulated via photoperiod signals from the retina. Understanding the nature of physiological rhythms in horses is crucially important for equine management. Predominantly, we have removed them from exposure to their natural environmental stimuli; the seasonally changing photoperiod, continuous foraging and feeding activity, social herd interactions and the continuous low intensity exercise of a grassland dweller. These have been replaced in many cases with confined indoor housing, regimental feeding and exercise times, social isolation and exposure to lighting that is often erratic and does not come close to mimicking the spectral composition of sunlight. We have further altered seasonal timing cues through the use of artificial lighting programs that impact reproductive behaviour, breeding efficiency and the development of youngstock. Understanding how these new environmental cues (some stronger, some weaker) impact the internal physiology of the horse in the context of the natural endogenous rhythms that evolved over millennia, is key to helping to improve equine health, welfare and performance, now and into the future. This review provides an overview of the field, highlights the recent discoveries related to biological timing in horses and discusses the implications that these findings may have for the production and management of the elite equine athlete.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0737-0806 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2257
Permanent link to this record