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Author Willmott, N. J., Henneken, J., Elgar, M. A., & Jones, T. M.
Title Guiding lights: Foraging responses of juvenile nocturnal orb‐web spiders to the presence of artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 125 Issue 5 Pages 289-287
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract The reach of artificial light at night (ALAN) is growing rapidly around the globe, including the increasing use of energy‐efficient LED lights. Many studies document the physiological costs of light at night, but far fewer have focused on the potential benefits for nocturnal insectivores and the likely ecological consequences of shifts in predator–prey relationships. We investigated the effects of ALAN on the foraging behaviour and prey capture success in juvenile Australian garden orb‐web spiders (Eriophora biapicata). Laboratory experiments demonstrated that juvenile spiders were attracted to LED lights when choosing foraging sites, but prey availability was a stronger cue for remaining in a foraging site. Field experiments revealed a significant increase in prey capture rates for webs placed near LED lights. This suggests that any physiological costs of light at night may be offset by the foraging benefits, perhaps partially explaining recently observed increases in the size, fecundity and abundance of some orb‐web spider species in urban environments. Our results highlight the potential long‐term consequences of night lighting in urban ecosystems, through the impact of orb‐web spiders on insect populations.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2304
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Author Frank, T. M., Gabbert, W. C., Chaves-Campos, J., & LaVal, R. K.
Title Impact of artificial lights on foraging of insectivorous bats in a Costa Rican cloud forest Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Tropical Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 8-17
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Determining the effects of light pollution on tropical bat communities is important for understanding community assembly rules in urban areas. Studies from temperate regions suggest that, among aerial insectivorous bats, fast-flying species that forage in the open are attracted to artificial lights, whereas slow-flying species that forage in cluttered environments avoid those lights. We measured aerial insectivore responses to light pollution in a tropical cloud forest to test this hypothesis. Bat echolocation was recorded at 20 pairs of light and dark sites in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Foraging activity was higher at artificially lighted sites than dark sites near the new moon, especially around blue-white fluorescent lighting. Most recorded bat species showed increased or unchanged activity in response to light, including some slow-flying and edge-foraging bats. This finding suggests that, contrary to the evaluated hypothesis, flight speed and foraging mode are not sufficient to determine bat responses to artificial lights in the tropics. Two bat species showed decreased activity at light sites, and a low species evenness was recorded around lights, particularly fluorescent lights, compared with dark sites. As in the temperate zone, light pollution in the tropics seems to concentrate certain bat species around human-inhabited areas, potentially shifting community structure.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2311
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Author Hoyos-Díaz, J. M., Villalba-Alemán, E., Ramoni-Perazzi, P., & Muñoz-Romo, M.
Title Impact of artificial lighting on capture success in two species of frugivorous bats (chiroptera: phyllostomidae) in an urban locality from the Venezuelan Andes Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Mastozoologia Neotropical Abbreviated Journal
Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Artificial light is becoming a major issue for bats because it affects critical activities such as foraging, reproduction, and communication. We assessed the effect of artificial lighting on Artibeus lituratus and Artibeus jamaicensis in a small secondary growth forest patch near a street subjected to unexpected illumination. Bats were captured in the forest patch using a 12-m long mist net. Results indicated a nearly six-fold, significant decrease in capture success after the street lamps were installed. Artificial light from street lamps functions as a “light barrier” that inhibits bats from conducting short and long-distance movements, which might have detrimental consequences for bats and the plants they disperse. RESUMEN. Impacto de la luz artificial en el éxito de captura de dos especies de murciélagos frugívoros (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en una localidad urbana de Los Andes venezolanos. La luz artificial se ha convertido en un problema grave para los murciélagos, porque está afectando actividades críticas que incluyen forrajeo, reproducción y comunicación. Evaluamos el efecto de la luz artificial en los murciélagos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus y Artibeus jamaicensis, en un pequeño parche de bosque secundario, cercano a una calle sujeta a una iluminación artificial inesperada. Capturamos a los murciélagos en el bosque secundario, empleando una red de neblina de 12 m de longitud. Los resultados indican que el éxito de captura disminuyó significativamente casi seis veces después de la instalación de los bombillos. La luz artificial de las lámparas funciona como “barreras u obstáculos de luz” que inhiben a los murciélagos de realizar movimientos de corta y larga distancia, lo cual podría tener consecuencias perjudiciales para los murciélagos y las plantas que ellos dispersan.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2318
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Author Laforge, A., Pauwels, J., Faure, B., Bas, Y., Kerbiriou, C., Fonderflick, J., & Besnard, A.
Title Reducing light pollution improves connectivity for bats in urban landscapes Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-17
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Context

Light pollution can alter animal movements and landscape connectivity. This is particularly true in urban landscapes where a need to incorporate conservation issues in urban planning is urgent.

Objectives

We investigated how potential light-reduction scenarios at conurbation scale change landscape connectivity for bats.

Methods

Through random stratified sampling and species distribution modelling, we assessed the relative importance of light pollution on bat presence probability and activity. We recorded bats during one entire night on each 305 sampling points in 2015. In 2016, we surveyed 94 supplementary points to evaluate models performance. We used our spatial predictions to characterize landscape resistance to bat movements. Then we applied a least-cost modelling approach to identify nocturnal corridors and estimated the impact of five light-reduction scenarios on landscape connectivity for two light non-tolerant bat species.

Results

We found that light pollution detected from satellite images was a good predictor of bat presence and activity up to 700 m radius. Our results exhibited contrasting responses to average radiance: M. daubentonii responded negatively, P. nathusii had a positive response for low values then a negative response after a threshold radiance value of 20 W.m−2.sr−1 and E. serotinus responded positively. Five and four light-reduction scenarios significantly improved landscape connectivity for M. daubentonii and P. nathusii respectively.

Conclusions

Light-reduction measures should be included in urban planning to provide sustainable conditions for bats in cities. We advocate for the use of our methodological approach to further studies to find the best trade-off between conservation needs and social acceptability.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2345
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Author Guilford, T., Padget, O., Bond, S., & Syposz, M. M.
Title Light pollution causes object collisions during local nocturnal manoeuvring flight by adult Manx Shearwaters Puffinus puffinus Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Seabird Abbreviated Journal
Volume 31 Issue Pages 48-55
Keywords (up) Animals
Abstract Understanding the detrimental effects of anthropogenic light on nocturnally mobile animals is a long-standing problem in conservation biology. Seabirds such as shearwaters and petrels can be especially affected, perhaps because of their propensity to fly close to the surface, making them vulnerable to encountering anthropogenic light sources. We investigated the influence of light pollution on adult Manx Shearwaters Puffinus puffinus at close range in foggy conditions. We recorded collisions with a building at a breeding colony for six consecutive pairs of intervals in which the house lights were left on as normal for 135 seconds, then turned off for 135 seconds. The relationship between lighting condition and collision frequency was highly significant, with a collision rate in the presence of lighting around 25 times that in its absence. Our results show that birds were clearly affected by the lights, by being either directly attracted, or disorientated during flight close to the structure. This could have been due to the light source itself, or an indirect effect of the all-round reflective glow in the fog perhaps interfering with visual or magnetic control inputs on both sides of the bird simultaneously. Our results suggest a mechanism by which the screening of artificial lights close to shearwater breeding areas, at least during foggy nights, could lead to improved welfare and survival at breeding colonies.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2357
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