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Author Amano, T.; Ripperger, J.A.; Albrecht, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Changing the light schedule in late pregnancy alters birth timing in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal Theriogenology  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract In rats, birth timing is affected by changes in the light schedule until the middle of the pregnancy period. This phenomenon can be used to control birth timing in the animal industry and/or clinical fields. However, changes in the light schedule until the middle of the pregnancy period can damage the fetus by affecting the development of the major organs. Thus, we compared birth timing in mice kept under a 12-h light/12-h darkness schedule (L/D) throughout pregnancy with that of mice kept under a light schedule that changed from L/D to constant light (L/L) or constant darkness (D/D) from day 17.5 of pregnancy, the latter phase of the pregnancy period. On average, the pregnancy period was longer in D/D mice (19.9 days) than L/L or L/D mice (19.5 and 19.3 days, respectively, P < 0.05), confirming that light schedule affects birth timing. The average number of newborns was the same in L/L, L/D, and D/D mice (7.5, 7.8, and 7.9, respectively), but the average newborn weight of L/L mice (1.3 g) was lower than that of L/D and D/D mice (both 1.4 g, P < 0.05), indicating that constant light has detrimental effects on fetus growth. However, the percentage of dead newborns was the same between L/L, L/D, and D/D mice (11.1, 10.6, and 3.6%, respectively). The serum progesterone level on day 18.5 of pregnancy in L/D mice was 42.8 ng/ml, lower (P < 0.05) than that of D/D mice (65.3 ng/ml), suggesting that light schedule affects luteolysis. The average pregnancy period of mice lacking a circadian clock kept under D/D conditions from day 17.5 of pregnancy (KO D/D) (20.3 days) was delayed compared with wild-type (WT) D/D mice (P < 0.05). However, the average number of newborns, percentage of births with dead pups, and weight per newborn of KO D/D mice (7.6, 3.6%, and 1.4 g, respectively) were the same as WT mice kept under D/D conditions. A direct effect of the circadian clock on the mechanism(s) regulating birth timing was questionable, as the lighter average weight per KO fetus (0.6 g) versus WT fetus (0.7 g) on day 17.5 of pregnancy might have caused the delay in birth. The range of birth timing in KO D/D mice was the same as that of WT D/D mice, indicating that the circadian clock does not concentrate births at one time.  
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  ISSN 0093691X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2943  
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Author Bolliger, J. Hennet, T., Wermelinger, B., Blum, S., Haller, J. & Obrist, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Low impact of two LED colors on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity in a peri‑urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Artifcial light at night (ALAN) is an important driver of change in ecological environments of the 21th century. We investigated the impact on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity of two LED light colors (warm-white 2700 K, cold-white

6500 K) in a peri-urban environment. Bat activity (predominantly Pipistrellus pipistrellus) was largely driven by prey availability (insects), while insect abundance was responsive to nightly weather conditions (precipitation, temperature). Thus, both insects and bats were not diferentially responsive to cold-white or warm-white LEDs. These fndings are largely in contrast with literature, particularly for insects. However, as most published experiments on ALAN were conducted in areas that were lit solely for the purpose of the experiment, we would like to bring forward that (1) adaptation to environmental constraints may play a role in peri-urban environments that have been exposed to ALAN for many decades; or (2) impacts of cold-white LEDs on nocturnal insects may be lower than expected, because nocturnal insects adapted to low-light conditions may be put of by cold white light sources (6500 K).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2957  
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Author Voigt, C.C., Scholl, J.M., Bauer, J. et al. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Movement responses of common noctule bats to the illuminated urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 189-201  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Context

Cities are a challenging habitat for obligate nocturnal mammals because of the ubiquitous use of artificial light at night (ALAN). How nocturnal animals move in an urban landscape, particularly in response to ALAN is largely unknown.

Objectives

We studied the movement responses, foraging and commuting, of common noctules (Nyctalus noctula) to urban landscape features in general and ALAN in particular.

Methods

We equipped 20 bats with miniaturized GPS loggers in the Berlin metropolitan area and related spatial positions of bats to anthropogenic and natural landscape features and levels of ALAN.

Results

Common noctules foraged close to ALAN only next to bodies of water or well vegetated areas, probably to exploit swarms of insects lured by street lights. In contrast, they avoided illuminated roads, irrespective of vegetation cover nearby. Predictive maps identified most of the metropolitan area as non-favoured by this species because of high levels of impervious surfaces and ALAN. Dark corridors were used by common noctules for commuting and thus likely improved the permeability of the city landscape.

Conclusions

We conclude that the spatial use of common noctules, previously considered to be more tolerant to light than other bats, is largely constrained by ALAN. Our study is the first individual-based GPS tracking study to show sensitive responses of nocturnal wildlife to light pollution. Approaches to protect urban biodiversity need to include ALAN to safeguard the larger network of dark habitats for bats and other nocturnal species in cities.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2961  
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Author Kernbach, M. E., Cassone, V. M., Unnasch, T. R., & Martin, L. B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Broad-spectrum light pollution suppresses melatonin and increases West Nile virus–induced mortality in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for both humans and wildlife. Although many negative impacts of ALAN on human health have been identified, the consequences for infectious disease dynamics are largely unexplored. With the increase in popularity of energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the effects of spectral composition of ALAN have also come into question. Previous studies showed that exposure to low levels of incandescent ALAN extended the infectious period of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) infected with West Nile virus (WNV) without affecting mortality rates, thus increasing the pathogen initial reproductive rate (R0) by ~41%. Here, we asked whether exposure to broad-spectrum (3000 K [Kelvin; unit of color temperature]) ALAN suppressed melatonin, a hormone implicated in ALAN-induced physiological consequences, in House Sparrows. We then asked whether amber-hue bulbs (1800 K) could ameliorate the effects of WNV on individual sparrows, and whether broad-spectrum or blue-rich bulbs (3000 K and 5000 K, respectively) could exacerbate them. We found that exposure to low intensity (~5 lux) broad-spectrum (3000 K) ALAN significantly suppressed melatonin levels throughout the night. Second, we found that exposure to broad-spectrum and blue-rich (3000 + 5000 K) lights did not affect WNV viremia but did increase WNV-induced mortality. Conversely, birds exposed to amber-hue (1800 K) ALAN had lower viremia and mortality rates similar to controls (i.e. natural light conditions). This study demonstrates that ALAN affects melatonin regulation in birds, but this effect, as well as ALAN influences on infectious disease responses, can be ameliorated by particular lighting technologies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2967  
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Author Pan, H.; Xu, Y.; Liang, G.; Wyckhuys, K.A.G.; Yang, Y.; Lu, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Field evaluation of light-emitting diodes to trap the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Crop Protection Abbreviated Journal Crop Protection  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a limiting pest of many agricultural crops worldwide. At present, in-field populations of H. armigera are routinely monitored using conventional light traps. During 2014, 2015, we conducted field assays to assess the relative attractiveness of narrow-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 19 single wavelengths (375–748 nm) in H. armigera light traps. Between 2016 and 2019, LEDs with the most attractive wavelengths were then further evaluated in two different sites, i.e., Xinxiang and Anci (China). During 2014–2015, the highest H. armigera trap capture was obtained with LEDs at 395 nm, while it was not significantly different from LED wavelengths of 375 nm and 418 nm in 2015. During field trials in Xinxiang, H. armigera trap capture did not differ among (four) wavelengths (375 nm, 385 nm, 395 nm, and 405 nm) in either year. In the Anci site, most H. armigera adults were caught in traps equipped with LEDs of 385 nm during two years, but it was not significantly different from those at 405 nm in 2017. In 2019, H. armigera trap capture rate was higher for LEDs at 385 nm than for those at 395 nm, and 2.91-fold higher to that of a commercial UV blacklight (365 ± 50 nm) trap. Our work shows how LED-equipped traps constitute an efficient, energy-conserving way to monitor cotton bollworm populations, providing trap capture rates that surpass those of conventional technologies. We discuss how these innovative measures can complement the integrated pest management (IPM) toolbox for H. armigera in China and abroad.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0261-2194 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2984  
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