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Author Zhao, X.; Yu, B.; Liu, Y.; Chen, Z.; Li, Q.; Wang, C.; Wu, J.
Title Estimation of Poverty Using Random Forest Regression with Multi-Source Data: A Case Study in Bangladesh Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 375
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Spatially explicit and reliable data on poverty is critical for both policy makers and researchers. However, such data remain scarce particularly in developing countries. Current research is limited in using environmental data from different sources in isolation to estimate poverty despite the fact that poverty is a complex phenomenon which cannot be quantified either theoretically or practically by one single data type. This study proposes a random forest regression (RFR) model to estimate poverty at 10 km × 10 km spatial resolution by combining features extracted from multiple data sources, including the National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) nighttime light (NTL) data, Google satellite imagery, land cover map, road map and division headquarter location data. The household wealth index (WI) drawn from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program was used to reflect poverty level. We trained the RFR model using data in Bangladesh and applied the model to both Bangladesh and Nepal to evaluate the model’s accuracy. The results show that the R2 between the actual and estimated WI in Bangladesh is 0.70, indicating a good predictive power of our model in WI estimation. The R2 between actual and estimated WI of 0.61 in Nepal also indicates a good generalization ability of the model. Furthermore, a negative correlation is observed between the district average WI and the poverty head count ratio (HCR) in Bangladesh with the Pearson Correlation Coefficient of -0.6. Using Gini importance, we identify that proximity to urban areas is the most important variable to explain poverty which contribute to 37.9% of the explanatory power. Compared to the study that used NTL and Google satellite imagery in isolation to estimate poverty, our method increases the accuracy of estimation. Given that the data we use are globally and publicly available, the methodology reported in this study would also be applicable in other countries or regions to estimate the extent of poverty.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2217
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Author Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.; Ghosh, T.
Title Extending Nighttime Combustion Source Detection Limits with Short Wavelength VIIRS Data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 395
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) collects low light imaging data at night in five spectral bands. The best known of these is the day/night band (DNB) which uses light intensification for imaging of moonlit clouds in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR). The other four low light imaging bands are in the NIR and short-wave infrared (SWIR), designed for daytime imaging, which continue to collect data at night. VIIRS nightfire (VNF) tests each nighttime pixel for the presence of sub-pixel IR emitters across six spectral bands with two bands each in three spectral ranges: NIR, SWIR, and MWIR. In pixels with detection in two or more bands, Planck curve fitting leads to the calculation of temperature, source area, and radiant heat using physical laws. An analysis of January 2018 global VNF found that inclusion of the NIR and SWIR channels results in a doubling of the VNF pixels with temperature fits over the detection numbers involving the MWIR. The addition of the short wavelength channels extends detection limits to smaller source areas across a broad range of temperatures. The VIIRS DNB has even lower detection limits for combustion sources, reaching 0.001 m2 at 1800 K, a typical temperature for a natural gas flare. Comparison of VNF tallies and DNB fire detections in a 2015 study area in India found the DNB had 15 times more detections than VNF. The primary VNF error sources are false detections from high energy particle detections (HEPD) in space and radiance saturation on some of the most intense events. The HEPD false detections are largely eliminated in the VNF output by requiring multiband detections for the calculation of temperature and source size. Radiance saturation occurs in about 1% of the VNF detections and occurs primarily in the M12 spectral band. Inclusion of the radiances affected by saturation results in temperature and source area calculation errors. Saturation is addressed by identifying the presence of saturation and excluding those radiances from the Planck curve fitting. The extremely low detection limits for the DNB indicates that a DNB fire detection algorithm could reveal vast numbers of combustion sources that are undetectable in longer wavelength VIIRS data. The caveats with the DNB combustion source detection capability is that it should be restricted to pixels that are outside the zone of known VIIRS detected electric lighting.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2218
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Author Berman, S.
Title Opinion: Whither V(λ)? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 51 Issue 1 Pages 4-4
Keywords Vision
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2219
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Author L.Imhoff, M.; Lawrence, W.T.; Stutzer, D.C.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS “City Lights” satellite data to map urban area Type Journal Article
Year 1997 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 361-370
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A Tresholding technique was used to convert a prototype “city lights” data set from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAAINGDC) into a map of “urban areas” for the continental United States. Thresholding was required to adapt the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSPIOLS)-based NGDC data set into an urban map because the values reported in the prototype represent a cumulative percentage lighted for each pixel extracted from hundreds of nighttime cloud screened orbits, rather than any suitable land-cover classification. The cumulative percentage lighted data could not be used alone because the very high gain of the OLS nighttime photomultiplier configuration can. lead to a pixel (2.7X2.7 km) appearing “lighted” even with very low intensity, nonurban light sources. We found that a threshold of %89% yielded the best results, removing ephemeral light sources and “blooming” of light onto water when adjacent to cities while still leaving the dense urban core intact. This approach gave very good results when compared with the urban areas as defined by the 1990 U. S. Census; the “urban” area from our analysis being only 5% less than that of the Census. The Census was also used to derive population.- and housing-density statistics for the continent-wide “city lights” analysis; these averaged 1033 persons/km2 and 426 housing units/ king, respectively. The use of a nighttime sensor to determine the location and estimate the density of population based on light sources has proved feasible in this exploratory effort. However, issues concerning the use of census data as a benchmark for evaluating the accuracy of remotely sensed imagery are discussed, and potential improvements in the sensor regarding spatial resolution, instrument gain, and pointing accuracy are addressed.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2220
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Author Amaral, S.; Câmara, G.; Monteiro, A.M.V.; Quintanilha, J.A.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title Estimating population and energy consumption in Brazilian Amazonia using DMSP night-time satellite data Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Computers, Environment and Urban Systems Abbreviated Journal Computers, Environment and Urban Systems
Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 179-195
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract This paper describes a methodology to assess the evidence of human presence and humanactivities in the Brazilian Amazonia region using DMSP/OLS night-time satellite sensorimagery. It consists on exploring the potential of the sensor data for regional studies analysingthe correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and population, and the correlation be-tween DMSP night-time light foci and electrical power consumption. In the mosaic of DMSP/OLS night-time light imagery from September 1999, 248 towns were detected from a total of749municıpiosin Amazonia. It was found that the night-time light foci were related to human presence in the region, including urban settlements, mining, industries, and civil construction,observed in ancillary Landsat TM and JERS imagery data. The analysis considering only thestate of Para revealed a linear relation (R2¼0:79) between urban population from the 1996census data and DMSP night-time light foci. Similarly, electrical power consumption for 1999was linearly correlated with DMSP night-time light foci. Thus the DMSP/OLS imagery can beused as an indicator of human presence in the analysis of spatial–temporal patterns in theAmazonia region. These results are very useful considering the continental dimension ofAmazonia, the absence of demographic information between the official population census(every 10 years), and the dynamics and complexity of human activities in the region. ThereforeDMSP night-time light foci are a valuable data source for global studies, modelling, and planning activities when the human dimension must be considered throughout Amazonia.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0198-9715 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2221
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