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Author Paranunzio, R.; Ceola, S.; Laio, F.; Montanari, A.
Title Evaluating the Effects of Urbanization Evolution on Air Temperature Trends Using Nightlight Satellite Data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Atmosphere Abbreviated Journal Atmosphere
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 117
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Confounding factors like urbanization and land-use change could introduce uncertainty to the estimation of global temperature trends related to climate change. In this work, we introduce a new way to investigate the nexus between temporal trends of temperature and urbanization data at the global scale in the period from 1992 to 2013. We analyze air temperature data recorded from more than 5000 weather stations worldwide and nightlight satellite measurements as a proxy for urbanization. By means of a range of statistical methods, our results quantify and outline that the temporal evolution of urbanization affects temperature trends at multiple spatial scales with significant differences at regional and continental scales. A statistically significant agreement in temperature and nightlight trends is detected, especially in low and middle-income regions, where urbanization is rapidly growing. Conversely, in continents such as Europe and North America, increases in temperature trends are typically detected along with non-significant nightlight trends.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2073-4433 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2249
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Author Cochard, P.; Galstian, T.; Cloutier, C.
Title The proportion of blue light affects parasitoid wasp behavior in LED-extended photoperiod in greenhouses: Increased parasitism and offspring sex ratio bias Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Control Abbreviated Journal Biological Control
Volume 133 Issue Pages 9-17
Keywords Animals
Abstract The increasing use of specific wavelengths involving light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under greenhouses enables to overcome the lack of light during winter months, helping crops photosynthesis or vegetative growth. However, modification of the light environment as well as the photoperiod may also alter directly or indirectly the activity of both beneficial and pest insects that depend on plants. Here, we submitted the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi and its main host the pea aphid, to 4 ratios of red(R): blue(B) LEDs used to lengthen the photoperiod inside a growth chamber. We recorded the parasitism rate of aphids and the sex ratio of newly emerged wasps to evaluate if A. ervi could remain an efficient biological control agent under modified light environments. We found that increasing the 8 h of photophase to 16 h by supplementing with R/B LEDs increased the daily parasitic activity of the wasp as well as their egg laying behavior. Under the 100R light supplement, about 80% of the emerged adults were males, against 50% under 25R:75B light treatment. These results indicate that A. ervi remains a good biological control agent when the light environment is modified. However, the use of red light to extend the photophase has the potential to negatively affect population dynamics of these parasitoids due to its male-bias impact on the sex ratio.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1049-9644 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2253
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Author Rebke, M.; Dierschke, V.; Weiner, C.N.; Aumüller, R.; Hill, K.; Hill, R.
Title Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume 233 Issue Pages 220-227
Keywords Animals
Abstract A growing number of offshore wind farms have led to a tremendous increase in artificial lighting in the marine environment. This study disentangles the connection of light characteristics, which potentially influence the reaction of nocturnally migrating passerines to artificial illumination under different cloud cover conditions. In a spotlight experiment on a North Sea island, birds were exposed to combinations of light colour (red, yellow, green, blue, white), intensity (half, full) and blinking mode (intermittent, continuous) while measuring their number close to the light source with thermal imaging cameras.

We found that no light variant was constantly avoided by nocturnally migrating passerines crossing the sea. The number of birds did neither differ between observation periods with blinking light of different colours nor compared to darkness. While intensity did not influence the number attracted, birds were drawn more towards continuous than towards blinking illumination, when stars were not visible. Red continuous light was the only exception that did not differ from the blinking counterpart. Continuous green, blue and white light attracted significantly more birds than continuous red light in overcast situations.

Our results suggest that light sources offshore should be restricted to a minimum, but if lighting is needed, blinking light is to be preferred over continuous light, and if continuous light is required, red light should be applied.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2255
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Wallner, S.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.
Title An asymptotic formula for skyglow modelling over a large territory Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 485 Issue 2 Pages 2214-2224
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract An analytical framework to predict skyglow due to distant sources is presented, which can be applied to model sky brightness from the zenith toward the horizon along a vertical plane crossing the hemisphere in the azimuthal position of a light source. Although various powerful algorithms have been developed over the last few decades, the time needed for calculation grows exponentially with increasing size of the modelling domain. This is one of the key issues in skyglow computations, because the numerical accuracy improves only slowly as the modelling domain extends. We treat the problem theoretically, by introducing an analytical formula that is well-suited for light sources located at intermediate and long distances from an observation point and allows tremendous time savings in numerical analyses, while keeping the error at a low level. Field experiments carried out in Eastern Austria provided a unique opportunity to validate the model using real-sky luminance data. The fact that the theoretical model allows the prediction of sky luminance within an acceptable error tolerance is not only in line with the experimental data, but also provides new means of remote characterization of light emissions from artificial sources. The method is particularly attractive for rapid and simple retrieval of the amount of light escaping upwards from the dominant light sources surrounding the observation point. We expect that the method can advance the numerical modelling of skyglow substantially, because it allows real-time computations for very large territories.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2258
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Author Coulthard, E.; Norrey, J.; Shortall, C.; Harris, W.E.
Title Ecological traits predict population changes in moths Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume 233 Issue Pages 213-219
Keywords Animals
Abstract Understanding the ecological traits which predispose species to local or global extinction allows for more effective pre-emptive conservation management interventions. Insect population declines are a major facet of the global biodiversity crisis, yet even in Europe they remain poorly understood. Here we identify traits linked to population trends in ‘common and widespread’ UK moths. Population trend data from the Rothamsted Research Insect Survey spanning 40 years was subject to classification and regression models to identify common traits among species experiencing a significant change in occurrence. Our final model had an accuracy of 76% and managed to predict declining species on 90% of occasions, but was less successful with increasing species. By far the most powerful predictor associated for declines was moth wingspan with large species declining more frequently. Preference for woody or herbaceous larval food sources, nocturnal photoperiod activity, and richness of habitats occupied also proved to be significantly associated with decline. Our results suggest that ecological traits can be reliably used to predict declines in moths, and that this model could be used for Data Deficient species, of which there are many.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2260
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