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Author Maggio, R.; Vaglini, F.; Rossi, M.; Fasciani, I.; Pietrantoni, I.; Marampon, F.; Corsini, G.U.; Scarselli, M.; Millan, M.J.
Title Parkinson's disease and light: The bright and the Dark sides Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Brain Research Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Bull
Volume 150 Issue Pages 290-296
Keywords Humah Health; Light pollution; Near-infrared light; Parkinson's disease
Abstract Light exerts a major influence on human behaviour and health, mainly owing to the importance of sight in our lives, but also due to its entrainment of daily rhythms via the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master pacemaker. Light may also be a useful clinical medium, as in lumino-therapy for the improvement of depressed mood. Further, as discussed herein, local application of near infrared light to the substantia nigra exerts neuroprotective properties in models of Parkinson's disease. However, light also has a darker side. In general, as regards the growing problem to human health – and the natural world – of excess exposure to artificial light: both urban glow and ubiquitous screens. Moreover, over-exposure to light, in particular fluorescent light, disrupts circadian rhythms and sleep, and may damage dopaminergic neurons. Is it, then, a neglected risk factor for Parkinson's disease? The present article discusses epidemiological and experimental evidence supporting beneficial and potentially deleterious impact of light on dopaminergic neurons and highlights the mechanisms whereby light might influence neuronal tissue.
Address Centre for Innovation in Neuropsychiatry, Institut de Recherches Servier, 125, Chemin de Ronde, 78290, Croissy sur Seine, France. Electronic address: mark.millan@servier.com
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ISSN 0361-9230 ISBN Medium
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Notes (down) PMID:31226407 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2586
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Author David, A.; Smet, K.A.G.; Whitehead, L.
Title Methods for Assessing Quantity and Quality of Illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Annual Review of Vision Science Abbreviated Journal Annu Rev Vis Sci
Volume 5 Issue Pages 479-502
Keywords Vision; Review; Photometry; Colorimetry
Abstract Human vision provides useful information about the shape and color of the objects around us. It works well in many, but not all, lighting conditions. Since the advent of human-made light sources, it has been important to understand how illumination affects vision quality, but this has been surprisingly difficult. The widespread introduction of solid-state light emitters has increased the urgency of this problem. Experts still debate how lighting can best enable high-quality vision-a key issue since about one-fifth of global electrical power production is used to make light. Photometry, the measurement of the visual quantity of light, is well established, yet significant uncertainties remain. Colorimetry, the measurement of color, has achieved good reproducibility, but researchers still struggle to understand how illumination can best enable high-quality color vision. Fortunately, in recent years, considerable progress has been made. Here, we summarize the current understanding and discuss key areas for future study.
Address Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1, Canada; email: lorne.whitehead@ubc.ca
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ISSN 2374-4642 ISBN Medium
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Notes (down) PMID:31226013 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2576
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Author Nitta, Y.; Matsui, S.; Kato, Y.; Kaga, Y.; Sugimoto, K.; Sugie, A.
Title Analysing the evolutional and functional differentiation of four types of Daphnia magna cryptochrome in Drosophila circadian clock Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 8857
Keywords Animals
Abstract Cryptochrome (CRY) plays an important role in the input of circadian clocks in various species, but gene copies in each species are evolutionarily divergent. Type I CRYs function as a photoreceptor molecule in the central clock, whereas type II CRYs directly regulate the transcriptional activity of clock proteins. Functions of other types of animal CRYs in the molecular clock remain unknown. The water flea Daphnia magna contains four Cry genes. However, it is still difficult to analyse these four genes. In this study, we took advantage of powerful genetic resources available from Drosophila to investigate evolutionary and functional differentiation of CRY proteins between the two species. We report differences in subcellular localisation of each D. magna CRY protein when expressed in the Drosophila clock neuron. Circadian rhythm behavioural experiments revealed that D. magna CRYs are not functionally conserved in the Drosophila molecular clock. These findings provide a new perspective on the evolutionary conservation of CRY, as functions of the four D. magna CRY proteins have diverse subcellular localisation levels. Furthermore, molecular clocks of D. magna have been evolutionarily differentiated from those of Drosophila. This study highlights the extensive functional diversity existing among species in their complement of Cry genes.
Address Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan. atsushi.sugie@bri.niigata-u.ac.jp
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
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Notes (down) PMID:31222139; PMCID:PMC6586792 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2579
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Author Hoffmann, J.; Schirmer, A.; Eccard, J.A.
Title Light pollution affects space use and interaction of two small mammal species irrespective of personality Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication BMC Ecology Abbreviated Journal BMC Ecol
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 26
Keywords Animals; Animal personality; Hirec; Interspecific interactions; Nighttime illumination; Outdoor enclosure; Rodents
Abstract BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one form of human-induced rapid environmental changes (HIREC) and is strongly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Some personality types within a species might be better suited to cope with environmental change and therefore might be selected upon under ongoing urbanization. RESULTS: We used LED street lamps in a large outdoor enclosure to experimentally investigate the effects of ALAN on activity patterns, movement and interaction of individuals of two species, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). We analyzed effects combined with individual boldness score. Both species reduced their activity budget during daylight hours. While under natural light conditions home ranges were larger during daylight than during nighttime, this difference vanished under ALAN. Conspecifics showed reduced home range overlap, proximity and activity synchrony when subjected to nighttime illumination. Changes in movement patterns in reaction to ALAN were not associated with differences in boldness score of individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that light pollution can lead to changes in movement patterns and individual interactions in small mammals. This could lead to fitness consequences on the population level.
Address Animal Ecology, University of Potsdam, Maulbeerallee 1, 14469, Potsdam, Germany
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ISSN 1472-6785 ISBN Medium
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Notes (down) PMID:31215409; PMCID:PMC6582560 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2584
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Author Ulgezen, Z.N.; Kapyla, T.; Meerlo, P.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.; Dominoni, D.M.
Title The preference and costs of sleeping under light at night in forest and urban great tits Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 286 Issue 1905 Pages 20190872
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing phenomenon associated with worldwide urbanization. In birds, broad-spectrum white ALAN can have disruptive effects on activity patterns, metabolism, stress response and immune function. There has been growing research on whether the use of alternative light spectra can reduce these negative effects, but surprisingly, there has been no study to determine which light spectrum birds prefer. To test such a preference, we gave urban and forest great tits (Parus major) the choice where to roost using pairwise combinations of darkness, white light or green dim light at night (1.5 lux). Birds preferred to sleep under artificial light instead of darkness, and green was preferred over white light. In a subsequent experiment, we investigated the consequence of sleeping under a particular light condition, and measured birds' daily activity levels, daily energy expenditure (DEE), oxalic acid as a biomarker for sleep debt and cognitive abilities. White light affected activity patterns more than green light. Moreover, there was an origin-dependent response to spectral composition: in urban birds, the total daily activity and night activity did not differ between white and green light, while forest birds were more active under white than green light. We also found that individuals who slept under white and green light had higher DEE. However, there were no differences in oxalic acid levels or cognitive abilities between light treatments. Thus, we argue that in naive birds that had never encountered light at night, white light might disrupt circadian rhythms more than green light. However, it is possible that the negative effects of ALAN on sleep and cognition might be observed only under intensities higher than 1.5 lux. These results suggest that reducing the intensity of light pollution as well as tuning the spectrum towards long wavelengths may considerably reduce its impact.
Address 5 Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK
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ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
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Notes (down) PMID:31213184; PMCID:PMC6599990 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2557
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