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Author Dautovich, N.D.; Schreiber, D.R.; Imel, J.L.; Tighe, C.A.; Shoji, K.D.; Cyrus, J.; Bryant, N.; Lisech, A.; O'Brien, C.; Dzierzewski, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of the amount and timing of light in association with objective and subjective sleep outcomes in community-dwelling adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Light is considered the dominant environmental cue, or zeitgeber, influencing the sleep-wake cycle. Despite recognizing the importance of light for our well-being, less is known about the specific conditions under which light is optimally associated with better sleep. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to examine the association between the amount and timing of light exposure in relation to sleep outcomes in healthy, community-dwelling adults. A systematic search was conducted of four databases from database inception to June 2016. In total, 45 studies met the review eligibility criteria with generally high study quality excepting for the specification of eligibility criteria and the justification of sample size. The majority of studies involved experimental manipulation of light (n = 32) vs observational designs (n = 13). Broad trends emerged suggesting that (1) bright light (>1000 lux) has positive implications for objectively assessed sleep outcomes compared to dim (<100 lux) and moderate light (100-1000 lux) and (2) bright light (>1000 lux) has positive implications for subjectively assessed sleep outcomes compared to moderate light (100-1000 lux). Effects due to the amount of light are moderated by the timing of light exposure such that, for objectively assessed sleep outcomes, brighter morning and evening light exposure are consistent with a shift in the timing of the sleep period to earlier and later in the day, respectively. For subjectively assessed sleep outcomes, brighter light delivered in the morning was associated with self-reported sleep improvements and brighter evening light exposure was associated with worse self-reported sleep.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2352-7218 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2050  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ernst, S.; Łabuz, M.; Środa, K.; Kotulski, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Graph-Based Spatial Data Processing and Analysis for More Efficient Road Lighting Design Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 10 Issue 11 Pages 3850  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The efficiency and affordability of modern street lighting equipment are improving quickly, but systems used to manage and design lighting installations seem to lag behind. One of their problems is the lack of consistent methods to integrate all relevant data. Tools used to manage lighting infrastructure are not aware of the geographic characteristics of the lit areas, and photometric calculation software requires a lot of manual editing by the designer, who needs to assess the characteristics of roads, define the segments, and assign the lighting classes according to standards. In this paper, we propose a graph-based method to integrate geospatial data from various sources to support the process of data preparation for photometric calculations. The method uses graph transformations to define segments and assign lighting classes. A prototype system was developed to conduct experiments using real-world data. The proposed approach is compared to results obtained by professional designers in a case study; the method was also applied to several European cities to assess its efficiency. The obtained results are much more fine-grained than those yielded by the traditional approach; as a result, the lighting is more adequate, especially when used in conjunction with automated optimisation tools.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2051  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bará, S.; Rodríguez-Arós, Á.; Pérez, M.; Tosar, B.; Lima, R.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimating the relative contribution of streetlights, vehicles, and residential lighting to the urban night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res & Tech  
  Volume Issue October 2018 Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; traffic; Roadway lighting  
  Abstract Under stable atmospheric conditions the brightness of the urban sky varies throughout the night following the time course of the anthropogenic emissions of light. Different types of artificial light sources (e.g. streetlights, residential, and vehicle lights) have specific time signatures, and this feature makes it possible to estimate the amount of brightness contributed by each of them. Our approach is based on transforming the time representation of the zenithal night sky brightness into a modal expansion in terms of the time signatures of the different sources of light. The modal coefficients, and hence the absolute and relative contributions of each type of source, can be estimated by means of a linear least squares fit. A practical method for determining the time signatures of different contributing sources is also described, based on wide-field time-lapse photometry of the urban nightscape. Our preliminary results suggest that, besides the dominant streetlight contribution, artificial light leaking out of the windows of residential buildings may account for a significant share of the time-varying part of the zenithal night sky brightness at the measurement locations, whilst the contribution of the vehicle lights seems to be significantly smaller.  
  Address Área de Óptica, Dept. Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Galicia, Spain. salva.bara(at)usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2052  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kawasaki, A.; Wisniewski, S.; Healey, B.; Pattyn, N.; Kunz, D.; Basner, M.; Münch, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of long-term daylight deprivation on retinal light sensitivity, circadian rhythms and sleep during the Antarctic winter Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Long-term daylight deprivation such as during the Antarctic winter has been shown to lead to delayed sleep timing and sleep fragmentation. We aimed at testing whether retinal sensitivity, sleep and circadian rest-activity will change during long-term daylight deprivation on two Antarctic bases (Concordia and Halley VI) in a total of 25 healthy crew members (mean age: 34 ± 11y; 7f). The pupil responses to different light stimuli were used to assess retinal sensitivity changes. Rest-activity cycles were continuously monitored by activity watches. Overall, our data showed increased pupil responses under scotopic (mainly rod-dependent), photopic (mainly L-/M-cone dependent) as well as bright-blue light (mainly melanopsin-dependent) conditions during the time without direct sunlight. Circadian rhythm analysis revealed a significant decay of intra-daily stability, indicating more fragmented rest-activity rhythms during the dark period. Sleep and wake times (as assessed from rest-activity recordings) were significantly delayed after the first month without sunlight (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that during long-term daylight deprivation, retinal sensitivity to blue light increases, whereas circadian rhythm stability decreases and sleep-wake timing is delayed.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2053  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elvidge, C.D.; Bazilian, M.D.; Zhizhin, M.; Ghosh, T.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The potential role of natural gas flaring in meeting greenhouse gas mitigation targets Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energy Strategy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Energy Strategy Reviews  
  Volume 20 Issue Pages 156-162  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In this paper, we compare 2015 satellite-derived natural gas (gas) flaring data with the greenhouse gas reduction targets presented by those countries in their nationally determined contributions (NDC) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement. Converting from flaring to utilization is an attractive option for reducing emissions. The analysis rates the potential role of reduction of gas flaring in meeting country-specific NDC targets. The analysis includes three categories of flaring: upstream in oil and gas production areas, downstream at refineries and transport facilities, and industrial (e.g., coal mines, landfills, water treatment plants, etc.). Upstream flaring dominates with 90.6% of all flaring. Global flaring represents less than 2% of the NDC reduction target. However, most gas flaring is concentrated in a limited set of countries, leaving the possibility that flaring reduction could contribute a sizeable portion of the NDC targets for specific countries. States that could fully meet their NDC targets through gas flaring reductions include: Yemen (240%), Algeria (197%), and Iraq (136%). Countries which could meet a substantial portion of their NDC targets with gas flaring reductions include: Gabon (94%), Algeria (48%), Venezuela (47%), Iran (34%), and Sudan (33%). On the other hand, several countries with large flared gas volumes could only meet a small portion of their NDC targets from gas flaring reductions, including the Russian Federation (2.4%) and the USA (0.1%). These findings may be useful in guiding national level efforts to meet NDC greenhouse gas reduction targets.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211467X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2055  
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