|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Pagden, M.; Ngahane, K.; Amin, M.S.R.
Title Changing the colour of night on urban streets – LED vs. part-night lighting system Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Socio-Economic Planning Sciences Abbreviated Journal Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
Volume in press Issue Pages 100692
Keywords Energy; Planning; Economics; United Kingdom; LED; Lighting
Abstract Many cities in the United Kingdom are upgrading the streetlights to white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps for reducing the electricity costs and attaining the sustainable energy solutions. Installation of LED lamps on urban street requires higher installation costs and a long-term period to payback benefits of replacing outdated streetlights in terms of energy savings and costs. To achieve the short-term energy efficiency of urban street lighting, city councils sometimes adopt the part-night lighting system particularly in the residential areas. The Coventry City Council recently replaced 29,701 existing sodium lights with LED lamps. This paper performs the economic analyses to understand the feasibility of two street lighting systems: LED lamps and ‘part-night’ lightings on the Coventry streets during the twenty-year period assuming the return period of investment is twenty years. The projection of energy consumption and costs for LED lamps and part-night lighting systems shows that electricity can be saved by 44% and 21% comparing to current electricity usages, respectively. Considering the budgetary constraints of Coventry City Council, this paper concludes that the part-night lighting system may be beneficial in short-term period, but it is economically feasible to replace the existing lower efficiency lights with LED lamps.
Address Faculty of Engineering, Environment & Computing, Coventry University, Priory St, Coventry, West Midlands, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom; pagdenm(at)uni.coventry.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher English Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0038-0121 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2234
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Valenzuela-Martínez, M.; Lardelli-Claret, P.; Molina-Soberanes, D.; Moreno-Roldán, E.; Jiménez-Mejías, E.
Title Factors related to the risk of pedestrian fatality after a crash in Spain, 1993–2013 Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Transport & Health Abbreviated Journal Journal of Transport & Health
Volume 12 Issue Pages 279-289
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of association between pedestrian fatalities during the first 24 h after a crash and pedestrian-, driver-, vehicle- and environment-related characteristics in Spain from 1993 to 2013.

Methods

Data were analyzed for all 203,622 traffic crashes involving a pedestrian and a motor vehicle recorded in the Spanish Registry of Road Crashes with Victims. After multiple imputation for missing values, crude (CMRR) and adjusted mortality rate ratios (AMRR) were obtained for each variable with Poisson regression models.

Results

Pedestrian risk of death after a crash increased nearly exponentially with pedestrian age. Male sex, committing an infraction and having a physical defect were also associated with a higher risk of death (AMRR 1.27, 95%CI 1.17–1.37 for physical defect). Regarding driver-related factors associated with pedestrian fatalities, visual defects (AMRR 1.21, 95%CI 1.08–1.37) and the commission of a speed infraction (AMRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.43–2.76) increased the risk. Heavy vehicles (trucks, vans, buses) and the presence of passengers were also associated with a higher risk of pedestrian death. The risk of pedestrian death was lower for crashes that occurred between 12:00 and 14:00, in good light conditions, at intersections, and when the pedestrian was on a sidewalk. Risk was higher in crashes in rural areas with fewer than 5000 inhabitants.

Conclusions

We identified several factors strongly associated with the risk of pedestrian fatality; some of these factors are analyzed here for the first time. This knowledge is potentially useful in the design and prioritization of measures intended to increase pedestrian safety.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2214-1405 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2236
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cao, X.; Hu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Shi, F.; Zhuo, L.; Chen, J.
Title A simple self-adjusting model for correcting the blooming effects in DMSP-OLS nighttime light images Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 224 Issue Pages 401-411
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Night-time light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operation Linescan System (OLS) provide important observations of human activities; however, DMSP-OLS NTL data suffer from problems such as saturation and blooming. This research developed a self-adjusting model (SEAM) to correct blooming effects in DMSP-OLS NTL data based on a spatial response function and without using any ancillary data. By assuming that the pixels adjacent to the background contain no lights (i.e., pseudo light pixels, PLPs), the blooming effect intensity, a parameter in the SEAM model, can be estimated by pixel-based regression using PLPs and their neighboring light sources. SEAM was applied to all of China, and its performance was assessed for twelve cities with different population sizes. The results show that SEAM can largely reduce the blooming effect in the original DMSP-OLS dataset and enhance its quality. The images after blooming effect correction have higher spatial similarity with Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) images and higher spatial variability than the original DMSP-OLS data. We also found that the average effective blooming distance is approximately 3.5 km in China, which may be amplified if the city is surrounded by water surfaces, and that the blooming effect intensity is positively correlated to atmospheric quality. The effectiveness of the proposed model will improve the capacity of DMSP-OLS images for mapping the urban extent and modeling socioeconomic parameters.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2239
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hu, T.; Huang, X.
Title A novel locally adaptive method for modeling the spatiotemporal dynamics of global electric power consumption based on DMSP-OLS nighttime stable light data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Applied Energy Abbreviated Journal Applied Energy
Volume 240 Issue Pages 778-792
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Timely and reliable estimation of electricity power consumption (EPC) is essential to the rational deployment of electricity power resources. Nighttime stable light (NSL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) have the potential to model global 1-km gridded EPC. A processing chain to estimate EPC includes: (1) NSL data correction; and (2) regression model between EPC statistics and NSL data. For the global gridded EPC estimation, the current approach is to correct the global NSL image in a uniform manner and establish the linear relationships between NSL and EPC. However, the impacts of local socioeconomic inconsistencies on the NSL correction and model establishment are not fully considered. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel locally adaptive method for global EPC estimation. Firstly, we set up two options (with or without the correction) for each local area considering the global NSL image is not saturated everywhere. Secondly, three directions (forward, backward, or average) are alternatives for the inter-annual correction to remove the discontinuity effect of NSL data. Thirdly, four optional models (linear, logarithmic, exponential, or second-order polynomial) are adopted for the EPC estimation of each local area with different socioeconomic dynamic. Finally, the options for each step constitute all candidate processing chains, from which the optimal one is adaptively chosen for each local area based on the coefficient of determination. The results demonstrate that our product outperforms the existing one, at global, continental, and national scales. Particularly, the proportion of countries/districts with a high accuracy (MARE (mean of the absolute relative error)  ≤ 10%) increases from 17.8% to 57.8% and the percentage of countries/districts with inaccurate results (MARE > 50%) decreases sharply from 23.0% to 3.7%. This product can enhance the detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of global EPC.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-2619 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2242
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.
Title A portable wide-field instrument for mapping night sky brightness automatically Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana Abbreviated Journal Mem. S.A. It.
Volume 74 Issue 2 Pages 458-459
Keywords Instrumentation; all-sky; photometry; sky brightness
Abstract We present a portable automatic instrument for monitoring night sky brightness and atmospherical transparency in astronomical photometrical bands. Main requirements were: fast and automatic coverage of the entire sky, lightness, transportability and quick set-up in order to take measurements from more sites in the same night, easily available commercial components and software to be reproduced by any interested institution, included amateurs astronomers groups.
Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell’Inquinamento Luminoso, Thiene, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Società Astronomica Italiana Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1824-016X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2243
Permanent link to this record