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Author Long, X.; Tie, X.; Zhou, J.; Dai, W.; Li, X.; Feng, T.; Li, G.; Cao, J.; An, Z.
Title Impact of the Green Light Program on haze in the North China Plain, China Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Chem. Phys.
Volume 19 Issue 17 Pages 11185-11197
Keywords Economics; Lighting; Planning
Abstract As the world's largest developing country, China has undergone ever-increasing demand for electricity during the past few decades. In 1996, China launched the Green Light Program (GLP), which became a national energy conservation activity for saving lighting electricity as well as an effective reduction of the coal consumption for power generation. Despite the great success of the GLP, its effects on haze have not been investigated and well understood. This study focused on assessing the potential coal saving induced by the improvement of luminous efficacy, the core of the GLP, and on estimating the consequent effects on the haze in the North China Plain (NCP), where a large number of power plants are located and are often engulfed by severe haze. The estimated potential coal saving induced by the GLP can reach a massive value of 120–323 million tons, accounting for 6.7 %–18.0 % of the total coal consumption for thermal power generation in China. There was a massive potential emission reduction of air pollutants from thermal power generation in the NCP, which was estimated to be 20.0–53.8 Gg for NOx and 6.9–18.7 Gg for SO2 in December 2015. The potential emission reduction induced by the GLP plays important roles in the haze formation, because the NOx and SO2 are important precursors for the formation of particles. To assess the impact of the GLP on haze, sensitivity studies were conducted by applying a regional chemical–dynamical model (WRF-CHEM). The model results suggest that in the case of lower-limit emission reduction, the PM2.5 concentration decreased by 2–5 µg m−3 in large areas of the NCP. In the case of upper-limit emission reduction, there was much more remarkable decrease in PM2.5 concentration (4–10 µg m−3). This study is a good example to illustrate that scientific innovation can induce important benefits for environment issues such as haze.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1680-7324 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2671
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Author Doumbia, E.H.T.; Liousse, C.; Keita, S.; Granier, L.; Granier, C.; Elvidge, C.D.; Elguindi, N.; Law, K.
Title Flaring emissions in Africa: Distribution, evolution and comparison with current inventories Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Atmospheric Environment Abbreviated Journal Atmospheric Environment
Volume 199 Issue Pages 423-434
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Flaring emissions are a major concern due to large uncertainties in the amount of chemical compounds released into the atmosphere and their evolution with time. A methodology based on DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) nighttime light data combined with regional gas flaring volumes from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Centers for Environmental Information (NOAA-NCEI) has been developed to estimate flaring emissions. This method is validated in Nigeria where individual field company data are available. The spatial distribution of CO2, CH4, NMVOCs, CO, OC, BC, SO2 and NOx is derived for the African continent for the period 1995–2010.

A range of the emissions due to flaring is estimated based on the range of emission factors (EFs) for each chemical species. An average decrease in CO2 emissions of about 30% is found over Africa from 1995 to 2010, with Nigeria being the largest contributor to this reduction (up to 50%). Changes in the spatial distribution with time indicate local increases, particularly at offshore platforms, which are attributed to a lack of regulations as well as aging infrastructures in oil and gas fields.

Comparisons with current inventories reveal differences in the location and magnitude of point source emissions. For chemical compounds such as NMVOCs and CH4, the ECLIPSE and EDGAR country-level values are considerably higher than the highest flaring emission estimated in this study for 2005. For species such as CO, OC, BC, SO2 and NOx, the emissions provided by the ECLIPSE and EDGAR inventories are generally within the same order of magnitude as the average values found in this study, with the exception of OC, BC and SO2 in which EDGAR provides much lower emissions. These discrepancies are likely due to either differences in the methodologies used to estimate the emissions, in the values of the emission factors considered, or in the definition of flaring sector. Our current estimations suggest that BC, CH4 and CO2 flaring emissions in Africa account for 1–15% (on average 7%), 0.5–8% (on average 2%) and 8–13% (on average 11%) of African total anthropogenic emissions, respectively. The contribution of flaring to African anthropogenic emissions varies widely among countries. For example, in Nigeria the average emissions due to flaring are estimated to be as high as 18% for BC, 10% for CH4 and 50% for CO2, which is significantly greater than the continental average and highlights the importance of emissions in flaring areas.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1352-2310 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2176
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Author Zhang, J.; Jaker, S.L.; Reid, J.S.; Miller, S.D.; Solbrig, J.; Toth, T.D.
Title Characterization and application of artificial light sources for nighttime aerosol optical depth retrievals using the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech.
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 3209-3222
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Using nighttime observations from Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night band (DNB), the characteristics of artificial light sources are evaluated as functions of observation conditions, and incremental improvements are documented on nighttime aerosol retrievals using VIIRS DNB data on a regional scale. We find that the standard deviation of instantaneous radiance for a given artificial light source is strongly dependent upon the satellite viewing angle but is weakly dependent on lunar fraction and lunar angle. Retrieval of nighttime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) based on the novel use of these artificial light sources is demonstrated for three selected regions (United States, Middle East and India) during 2015. Reasonable agreement is found between nighttime AOTs from the VIIRS DNB and temporally adjacent daytime AOTs from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) as well as from coincident nighttime AOT retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), indicating the potential of this method to begin filling critical gaps in diurnal AOT information at both regional and global scales. Issues related to cloud, snow and ice contamination during the winter season, as well as data loss due to the misclassification of thick aerosol plumes as clouds, must be addressed to make the algorithm operationally robust.
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ISSN 1867-8548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2583
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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2636
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Author Myers, L.; Christian, K.; Kirchner, R.
Title Flowering responses of 48 lines of oilseed rape (Brassica spp.) to vernalization and daylength Type Journal Article
Year 1982 Publication (up) Australian Journal of Agricultural Research Abbreviated Journal Aust. J. Agric. Res.
Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 927
Keywords Plants
Abstract Forty-eight lines of Brassica spp, of diverse origins were grown in the glasshouse either under natural daylengths or daylengths extended to 16 h by artificial illumination. Plants were either unvernalized or had been subjected to 6 weeks at 8¦C day and 6¦C night temperatures as seedlings. Lines could be classified into two major groups, according to whether or not vernalization or long photoperiods were essential for 50% flowering within 21 weeks. In six lines, both vernalization and long days were essential for prompt flowering, while only five lines did not respond to either treatment. Strong interactions between lines and treatments were found in the number of leaves and subtended buds at flowering. The results show that a wide range of responses is obtainable from material currently available, offering considerabk, scope for adaptation to different environments.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-9409 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2369
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