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Author Sanotra, G.S.; Lund, J.D.; Vestergaard, K.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of light-dark schedules and stocking density on behaviour, risk of leg problems and occurrence of chronic fear in broilers Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication (up) British Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 344-354  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract 1. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the effect of light-dark schedules on the walking ability, the risk of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) as well as the duration of tonic immobility (TI) reactions in commercial broiler flocks and (2) the effect of a daily dark period and reduced density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. 2. Experiment 1. Group 1 had a 2 to 8 h daily dark period from 2 to 26 d of age (light-dark programme A) at a stocking density of 28.4 chicks/m2. Group 2 had 8 h of darkness daily from 2 to 38 d of age (light-dark programme B) at 24 chicks/m2. The control group had 24 h continuous light at 28.4 chicks/m2. 3. Experiment 2. Behaviour was studied with and without a daily 8 h dark period and at high (30 chicks/m2) and low (18 chicks/m2) stocking densities. 4. Programme B reduced the prevalence of impaired walking ability, corresponding to gait score > 2, when compared with controls. The effect on walking ability corresponding to gait score > 0 approached significance. 5. Both light-dark programmes reduced the occurrence of TD. Programme B (combined with reduced stocking density), however, had the greater effect. 6. Both light-dark programmes reduced the duration of TI, compared with controls (mean = 426 s) Programme B resulted in a larger reduction (alpha = -156.9 s) than programme A (alpha = -117.0). 7. The proportions of chicks drinking, eating, pecking, scratching, standing and performing vertical wing-shakes increased--both when the 8 h dark period and the reduced stocking density were applied separately and in combination (experiment 2). 8. For all behaviours, except standing, the effect of the dark period was largest in broilers kept at the high stocking density (d 40).  
  Address Department of Animal Science and Animal Health, Division of Ethology and Health, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Groennegaardsvej 8, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. sgs@kvl.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12195793 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2169  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Xu, Y.; Knudby, A.; Côté-Lussier, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping ambient light at night using field observations and high-resolution remote sensing imagery for studies of urban environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume 145 Issue Pages 104-114  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Artificial lighting allows for a variety of activities to take place in the absence of sunlight, but also has an increasingly recognized range of negative social and health-related effects. For studies of urban ambient light at night (ALN), objective and standardized data on the amount of ALN experienced by people is often unavailable at the necessary intra-urban spatial scale. In this paper, we outline options for producing such data through (1) field observations acquired with a luminance meter mounted on a vehicle, (2) a 1-m resolution image mosaic produced from a dedicated aerial survey, and (3) a 50-m resolution image taken from the International Space Station. We produce two remote sensing-derived maps of ALN for a large urban area in Canada, and compare their spatial detail to the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, a publicly available alternative data source. Convergent validity with field observations suggests that both mapping approaches can be used to quantify the amount of light humans are exposed to at night, at different locations across a large urban area, and may thus aid in further studying the varied effects of artificial nighttime lighting.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1998  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Du, J.; Zhang, X.; King, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An investigation into the risk of night light pollution in a glazed office building: The effect of shading solutions Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume 145 Issue Pages 243-259  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning  
  Abstract Light pollution has been recognised as a major environmental problem in urban areas at night. This study presents an investigation into the impact of seven various shading solutions on the risk of light pollution caused by indoor artificial lighting in a fully glazed office building. Radiance, a ray-tracing package, was adopted to calculate external illuminances produced by indoor lighting applications at various positions. It has been determined that: 1) A glazed façade could become a critical source of light pollution or obtrusive light (sky glow and light trespass) due to applications of indoor lighting at night; 2) A light shelf could perform well on the protection of both light trespass and sky glow; 3) A large overhang and horizontal louvre could effectively lower the risk of light trespass, but would possibly cause the deterioration of sky glow; and 4) No significant impact of short overhang and vertical louvre can be found on the two aspects of light pollution. This study exposes a significant implication; apart from their principal functions, the shading devices applied in a largely glazed building may require a new role in controlling obtrusive light in cities at night.  
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  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2015  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Boyce, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The benefits of light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume 151 Issue Pages 356-367  
  Keywords Lighting; Society; Conservation  
  Abstract The use of light at night continues to increase. Simply put, this is because without light we are deprived of our premier sense, vision. By enabling vision the use of light at night delivers a number of benefits to people. Such benefits include greater safety for pedestrians and drivers, reduced fear of crime, more use of outdoor facilities after dark, enhanced economic growth and the creation of built and natural environments that are a source of beauty and entertainment. This suggests that the use of light at night is linked to some very basic human motivations which in turn means that people value such benefits and will not willingly abandon them. Fortunately, careful lighting design, soundly-based outdoor lighting standards and new lighting and sensor technology offer the possibility of providing the benefits of light at night while minimizing the impact on the environment.  
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  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2171  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Can Duman, A.; Güler, Ö. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Techno-economic analysis of off-grid photovoltaic LED road lighting systems: A case study for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume 156 Issue Pages 89-98  
  Keywords Economics; Lighting; off-grid photovoltaic; LED; Turkey  
  Abstract Street lighting is one of the sectors where off-grid energy systems are used, and in the past decade interest in these systems has increased due to recent developments occurred both in LED and PV technology. This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of off-grid PV LED road lighting systems for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey. Road lighting calculations are conducted using DIALux software for M4 and M5 road lighting classes to obtain optimal LED luminaires, pole sizes, and spacings. Among the obtained LED powers, load profiles are created using real lighting hours of operation of the selected regions. And then, the required PV-battery systems are optimized using HOMER software. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed for future projections considering possible increases in electricity prices and decreases in component cost of the PV systems. The results showed that the levelized COE of the off-grid PV LED road lighting systems vary between 0.229 and 0.362 $/kWh. for M4, and 0.254–0.359 $/kWh for M5 road lighting class, depending on the solar potential of the region. And, the total NPC of the entire lighting installation per km vary between 24296 and 29123 $ for M5, and 33225–44318 $ for M4 road lighting class. According to the results, the systems are infeasible under current conditions in Turkey. Nonetheless, they have the added benefits of contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Moreover, future projections show that the systems can be feasible if the declining trend in PV system costs continues and electricity prices increase.  
  Address Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, Ayazaga Campus, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey; dumanan(at)itu.edu.tr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elseiver Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2292  
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