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Author Pan, Y.-R.; Song, J.-Y.; Fan, B.; Wang, Y.; Che, L.; Zhang, S.-M.; Chang, Y.-X.; He, C.; Li, G.-Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title mTOR may interact with PARP-1 to regulate visible light-induced parthanatos in photoreceptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS Abbreviated Journal Cell Commun Signal  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 27  
  Keywords Health; Aif; Parp-1; Parthanatos; Retinal neuroprotection; Sirt1; mTOR  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Excessive light exposure is a detrimental environmental factor that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration. However, the mechanism of light-induced death of retina/photoreceptor cells remains unclear. The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) have become the primary targets for treating many neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying light-induced photoreceptor cell death and whether the neuroprotective effects of mTOR and PARP-1 inhibition against death are mediated through apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). METHODS: Propidium iodide (PI)/Hoechst staining, lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA), Western blot analysis, cellular fraction separation, plasmid transient transfection, laser confocal microscopy, a mice model, electroretinography (ERG), and hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining were employed to explore the mechanisms by which rapamycin/3-Aminobenzamide (3AB) exert neuroprotective effects of mTOR/PARP-1 inhibition in light-injured retinas. RESULTS: A parthanatos-like death mechanism was evaluated in light-injured 661 W cells that are an immortalized photoreceptor-like cell line that exhibit cellular and biochemical feature characteristics of cone photoreceptor cells. The death process featured over-activation of PARP-1 and AIF nuclear translocation. Either PARP-1 or AIF knockdown played a significantly protective role for light-damaged photoreceptors. More importantly, crosstalk was observed between mTOR and PARP-1 signaling and mTOR could have regulated parthanatos via the intermediate factor sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). The parthanatos-like injury was also verified in vivo, wherein either PARP-1 or mTOR inhibition provided significant neuroprotection against light-induced injury, which is evinced by both structural and functional retinal analysis. Overall, these results elucidate the mTOR-regulated parthanatos death mechanism in light-injured photoreceptors/retinas and may facilitate the development of novel neuroprotective therapies for retinal degeneration diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the mTOR/PARP-1 axis exerts protective effects on photoreceptors against visible-light-induced parthanatos. These protective effects are conducted by regulating the downstream factors of AIF, while mTOR possibly interacts with PARP-1 via SIRT1 to regulate parthanatos. Video Abstract Schematic diagram of mTOR interacting with PARP-1 to regulate visible light-induced parthanatos. Increased ROS caused by light exposure penetrates the nuclear membrane and causes nuclear DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 detects DNA breaks and synthesizes PAR polymers to initiate the DNA repair system that consumes a large amount of cellular NAD+. Over-production of PAR polymers prompts the release of AIF from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus, which leads to parthanatos. Activated mTOR may interact with PARP-1 via SIRT1 to regulate visible light-induced parthanatos.  
  Address Department of Ophthalmology, Second Hospital of JiLin University, No.218 Zi-Qiang St, ChangChun, 130041, China. liguangyu@aliyun.com  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1478-811X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32066462 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2830  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hong, F.; Pan, S.; Xu, P.; Xue, T.; Wang, J.; Guo, Y.; Jia, L.; Qiao, X.; Li, L.; Zhai, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin Orchestrates Lipid Homeostasis through the Hepatointestinal Circadian Clock and Microbiota during Constant Light Exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) Cells Abbreviated Journal Cells  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals; Cells; Lan; hepatointestinal; lipid homeostasis; melatonin; microbiota  
  Abstract Misalignment between natural light rhythm and modern life activities induces disruption of the circadian rhythm. It is mainly evident that light at night (LAN) interferes with the human endocrine system and contributes to the increasing rates of obesity and lipid metabolic disease. Maintaining hepatointestinal circadian homeostasis is vital for improving lipid homeostasis. Melatonin is a chronobiotic substance that plays a main role in stabilizing bodily rhythm and has shown beneficial effects in protecting against obesity. Based on the dual effect of circadian rhythm regulation and antiobesity, we tested the effect of melatonin in mice under constant light exposure. Exposure to 24-h constant light (LL) increased weight and insulin resistance compared with those of the control group (12-h light-12-h dark cycle, LD), and simultaneous supplementation in the melatonin group (LLM) ameliorated this phenotype. Constant light exposure disturbed the expression pattern of a series of transcripts, including lipid metabolism, circadian regulation and nuclear receptors in the liver. Melatonin also showed beneficial effects in improving lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm homeostasis. Furthermore, the LL group had increased absorption and digestion of lipids in the intestine as evidenced by the elevated influx of lipids in the duodenum and decrease in the efflux of lipids in the jejunum. More interestingly, melatonin ameliorated the gut microbiota dysbiosis and improved lipid efflux from the intestine. Thus, these findings offer a novel clue regarding the obesity-promoting effect attributed to LAN and suggest a possibility for obesity therapy by melatonin in which melatonin could ameliorate rhythm disorder and intestinal dysbiosis.  
  Address Key Laboratory for Cell Proliferation and Regulation Biology of State Education Ministry, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2073-4409 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32093272 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2854  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mascovich, K. A., Larson, L. R., & Andrews, K. M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lights On, or Lights Off? Hotel Guests' Response to Nonpersonal Educational Outreach Designed to Protect Nesting Sea Turtles Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Chelonian Conservation and Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 206-215  
  Keywords Education; Psychology  
  Abstract Light pollution from beachfront hotels has the potential to impact nesting and hatching sea turtles. Education strategies could be used to alter visitor behavior and mitigate this threat. We tested the efficacy of a sea turtle–friendly education card that encouraged visitors to “protect the night, hide the light.” Cards were placed in beachfront hotel rooms at a prominent sea turtle nesting site: Jekyll Island, Georgia. We assessed visitor responses by conducting nightly observations to determine the proportion of occupied guest rooms with beach-visible lights under 2 different scenarios (cards present or cards absent). We found that less than half of all hotel guests closed room blinds to minimize artificial light on the nesting beach, and compliance rates seemed to be lower during peak visitation times. The nonpersonal educational treatment (card) had little effect on visitors' sea turtle–friendly lighting choices and behaviors, highlighting the need for other approaches to encourage responsible tourist behavior at ecologically sensitive beach destinations.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2316  
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Author Wang, H.; Li, J.; Gao, M.; Chan, T.-C.; Gao, Z.; Zhang, M.; Li, Y.; Gu, Y.; Chen, A.; Yang, Y.; Ho, H.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatiotemporal variability in long-term population exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality attributable to PM2.5 across the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region over 2010–2016: A multistage approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) Chemosphere Abbreviated Journal Chemosphere  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 127153  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) is one of the most densely populated regions in the world, and is frequently influenced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Specifically, lung cancer mortality has been recognized as a major health burden associated with PM2.5. Therefore, this study developed a multistage approach 1) to first create dasymetric population data with moderate resolution (1 km) by using a random forest algorithm, brightness reflectance of nighttime light (NTL) images, a digital elevation model (DEM), and a MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and 2) to apply the improved population dataset with a MODIS-derived PM2.5 dataset to estimate the association between spatiotemporal variability of long-term population exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality attributable to PM2.5 across YRD during 2010–2016 for microscale planning. The created dasymetric population data derived from a coarse census unit (administrative unit) were fairly matched with census data at a fine spatial scale (street block), with R2 and RMSE of 0.64 and 27,874.5 persons, respectively. Furthermore, a significant urban-rural difference of population exposure was found. Additionally, population exposure in Shanghai was 2.9–8 times higher than the other major cities (7-year average: 192,000 μg·people/m3·km2). More importantly, the relative risks of lung cancer mortality in high-risk areas were 28%–33% higher than in low-risk areas. There were 12,574–14,504 total lung cancer deaths attributable to PM2.5, and lung cancer deaths in each square kilometer of urban areas were 7–13 times higher than for rural areas. These results indicate that moderate-resolution information can help us understand the spatiotemporal variability of population exposure and related health risk in a high-density environment.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0045-6535 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2938  
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Author Wei, Y., Chen, Z., Xiu, C., Yu, B., & Liu, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Siting of Dark Sky Reserves in China Based on Multi-source Spatial Data and Multiple Criteria Evaluation Method Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Chinese Geographical Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-13  
  Keywords Conservation; Skyglow; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract With the rapid development of population and urbanization and the progress of lighting technology, the influence of artificial light sources has increased. In this context, the problem of light pollution has attracted wide attention. Previous studies have revealed that light pollution can affect biological living environments, human physical and mental health, astronomical observations and many other aspects. Therefore, organizations internationally have begun to advocate for measures to prevent light pollution, many of which are recognized by the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA). In addition to improving public awareness, legal protections, technical treatments and other means, the construction of Dark Sky Reserves (DSR) has proven to be an effective preventive measure. So far, as a pioneer practice in this field, the IDA has identified 11 DSRs worldwide. Based on the DA requirements for DSRs, this paper utilizes NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data and other multi-source spatial data to analyze possible DSR sites in China. The land of China was divided into more than ten thousand 30 km × 30 km fishnets, and constraint and suitable conditions were designated, respectively, as light and cloud conditions, and scale, traffic and attractiveness conditions. Using a multiple criteria evaluation, 1443 fishnets were finally selected as most suitable sites for the construction of DSRs. Results found that less than 25% of China is not subject to light pollution, and less than 13% is suitable for DSR construction, primarily in western and northern areas, including Tibet, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu and Inner Mongolia.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2724  
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