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Author Kumar, P.; Ashawat, M.S.; Pandit, V.; Sharma, D.K.
Title Artificial Light Pollution at Night: A Risk for Normal Circadian Rhythm and Physiological Functions in Humans Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Current Environmental Engineering Abbreviated Journal Cee
Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 111-125
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract From the past three to four decades, ecologists and scientists have exhaustively studied the effect of increased artificial light pollution at night on the ecological and physiological behavior of mammals. The Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) or master clock in the brain of mammals including humans synchronizes the physiological functions with the light: dark cycle. The prolongation of light period in the light: dark cycle disrupts the circadian rhythm of mammals causing several negative or modified physiological consequences. Changed physiological level of melatonin, an important endocrine hormone, had been identified as an important factor causing different consequences such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, metabolic disturbances, oxidative stress, and depression. The presence of artificial light at night is the demand of the era but thoughts must be given to the prevention of consequences due to artificial light pollution and ‘how much is needed’. The review paper discusses the effect of artificial light pollution on the biological clock of humans and associated negative physiological consequences. Further, the paper also briefly discusses the economics of light pollution and measures needed to prevent physiological disorders in humans.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2212-7178 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2695
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Author Leung, J.M.; Martinez, M.E.
Title Circadian Rhythms in Environmental Health Sciences Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication (up) Current Environmental Health Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr Environ Health Rep
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Review; Human Health; Asthma; Biomarkers; Breast cancer; Circadian rhythms; DNA methylation; Environmental health
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to explore how circadian rhythms influence disease susceptibility and potentially modify the effect of environmental exposures. We aimed to identify biomarkers commonly used in environmental health research that have also been the subject of chronobiology studies, in order to review circadian rhythms of relevance to environmental health and determine if time-of-day is an important factor to consider in environmental health studies. Moreover, we discuss opportunities for studying how environmental exposures may interact with circadian rhythms to structure disease pathology and etiology. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the study of circadian rhythms in mammals has flourished. Animal models revealed that all body tissues have circadian rhythms. In humans, circadian rhythms were also shown to exist at multiple levels of organization: molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, including responding to oxidative stress, cell trafficking, and sex hormone production, respectively. Together, these rhythms are an essential component of human physiology and can shape an individual's susceptibility and response to disease. Circadian rhythms are relatively unexplored in environmental health research. However, circadian clocks control many physiological and behavioral processes that impact exposure pathways and disease systems. We believe this review will motivate new studies of (i) the impact of exposures on circadian rhythms, (ii) how circadian rhythms modify the effect of environmental exposures, and (iii) how time-of-day impacts our ability to observe the body's response to exposure.
Address Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, Room 16-421C, New York, NY, USA. mem2352@cumc.columbia.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2196-5412 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32662059 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3055
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Author Stock, D.; Schernhammer, E.
Title Does night work affect age at which menopause occurs? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity Abbreviated Journal Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 306–312
Keywords Human Health; Review; shift work; Menopause; women
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To delineate the current state of evidence on the impact of night shift work on age at natural menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: The only direct evidence is from a single observational study, which indicates that women who work night shifts are at moderately higher risk for earlier menopause and that this risk is more pronounced among younger women. Underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be sufficiently substantiated. A long-held line of inquiry, most strongly propagated by the observed link between night shift work and female breast cancer, is the 'Light at Night' hypothesis, which suggests melatonin-mediated circadian disruption as a potential regulator of reproductive signaling in women. Supporting evidence is found from observations of changes in endogenous melatonin production among night working women or in response to light exposure, and corresponding changes in endogenous ovarian hormone levels and modulated menstrual patterns, among other indications of altered central ovulation-governing processes. Susceptibility to night shift work may be modified by chronotype. SUMMARY: This review summarizes the literature related to night work and ovulatory regulation in humans, prioritizing population-based evidence to provide motivation for the study of circadian disruption and night shift work as a regulator of menopausal timing.
Address Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1752-296X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31644468 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2708
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Author Torres-Farfan, C.; Mendez, N.; Ehrefeld, P.; Seron-Ferre, M.
Title In utero circadian changes; facing light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Current Opinion in Physiology Abbreviated Journal Current Opinion in Physiology
Volume 13 Issue Pages 128-134
Keywords Human Health; Review; In Utero; Pregnancy; Circadian Rhythm
Abstract Regardless of the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved, maternal fetal circadian systems interactions are recognized as crucial crosstalk for fetal development, and in turn, it may be a key factor determining fitting health in adulthood. However, in the last 100 years, life on the planet has altered the natural light-dark cycle by increasing light at night inducing disorganization of the circadian system, i.e. chronodisruption, including perturbation of the melatonin circadian rhythm by decreasing its nocturnal peak. The reduction in melatonin is associated with gradual losses in antioxidant protection, immunological and anti-inflammatory effects and as stated by WHO, the lack of nocturnal peak of melatonin is a deleterious signal that may induce chronic disease and cancer. Collectively the current review provides evidence about the role played by maternal circadian rhythms in fetal development and the impact of fetal-maternal desynchronization in the health and diseases of the offspring.
Address Laboratory of Developmental Chronobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; claudia.torres(at)uach.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsever Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2468-8673 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2761
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Author Woods, H. C., & Scott, H.
Title Merging the Biological and Cognitive Processes of Sleep and Screens Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Current Sleep Medicine Reports Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 150-155
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Purpose of Review

Screens are a permanent feature of life today and we have reached an interesting juncture with different research agendas investigating the biological and cognitive aspects of screen use separately. This review argues that it is timely and indeed essential that we bring together these research areas to fully understand both positive and negative aspects of screen use.

Recent Findings

More recent work is starting to take a more cohesive approach to understanding how device use pre-bedtime can impact our sleep by including both light and content in their experimental protocols which is a welcome development leading to a more nuanced understanding of both biological and cognitive processes.

Summary

We call for an open and collaborative approach to gain momentum in this direction of acknowledging both biological and cognitive factors enabling us to understand the relative impacts of both whilst using screens with regard to both light and content.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2640
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