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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1052-1064  
  Keywords Animals; Mammals; Bats; Chalinolobus gouldii; Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis; Australia; LED; lighting; street lighting  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.  
  Address School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Heydon‐Laurence Building, Science Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 Australia; joanna.haddock(at)sydney.edu.au  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2636  
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Author Myers, L.; Christian, K.; Kirchner, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Flowering responses of 48 lines of oilseed rape (Brassica spp.) to vernalization and daylength Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication (up) Australian Journal of Agricultural Research Abbreviated Journal Aust. J. Agric. Res.  
  Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 927  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Forty-eight lines of Brassica spp, of diverse origins were grown in the glasshouse either under natural daylengths or daylengths extended to 16 h by artificial illumination. Plants were either unvernalized or had been subjected to 6 weeks at 8¦C day and 6¦C night temperatures as seedlings. Lines could be classified into two major groups, according to whether or not vernalization or long photoperiods were essential for 50% flowering within 21 weeks. In six lines, both vernalization and long days were essential for prompt flowering, while only five lines did not respond to either treatment. Strong interactions between lines and treatments were found in the number of leaves and subtended buds at flowering. The results show that a wide range of responses is obtainable from material currently available, offering considerabk, scope for adaptation to different environments.  
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  ISSN 0004-9409 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2369  
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Author Smith, H.M.; Neaves, L.E.; Divljan, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predation on cicadas by an Australian Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus based on DNA evidence Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Australian Zoologist Abbreviated Journal Australian Zoologist  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Historically, reports of insectivory in family Pteropodidae have largely been anecdotal and thought to be an incidental corollary of flying-foxes feeding on plant products. More recent direct observations of flying-foxes catching and consuming insects, as well as advances in techniques that increase our ability to detect dietary items, suggest that this behaviour may be deliberate and more common than previously thought. Usually, multiple insects are consumed, but it appears that flying-foxes hunt and eat them one at a time. However, we have collected and photographed oral ejecta pellets under trees with high flying-fox activity, some containing evidence of multiple masticated insects. Further genetic analysis proved that these pellets came from Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pteropus poliocephalus. We propose that flying-foxes use an array of insect feeding strategies, most likely in response to variation in insect abundance and activity, as well as abiotic factors such as light and temperature.  
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  ISSN 0067-2238 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2148  
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Author Firebaugh, A.; Haynes, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution may create demographic traps for nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Basic and Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal Basic and Applied Ecology  
  Volume 34 Issue Pages 118-125  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Light pollution impacts both intra- and inter-specific interactions, such as interactions between mates and predator–prey interactions. In mobile organisms attracted to artificial lights, the effect of light pollution on these interactions may be intensified. If organisms are repelled by artificial lights, effects of light pollution on intra- and inter-specific interactions may be diminished as organisms move away. However, organisms repelled by artificial lights would likely lose suitable habitat as light pollution expands. Thus, we investigated how light pollution affects both net attraction or repulsion of organisms and effects on intra- and inter-specific interactions. In manipulative field studies using fireflies, we found that Photuris versicolor and Photinus pyralis fireflies were lured to artificial (LED) light at night and that both species were less likely to engage in courtship dialogues (bioluminescent flashing) in light-polluted field plots. Light pollution also lowered the mating success of P. pyralis. P. versicolor is known to prey upon P. pyralis by mimicking the flash patterns of P. pyralis, but we did not find an effect of light pollution on Photuris–Photinus predator–prey interactions. Our study suggests, that for some nocturnal insects, light-polluted areas may act as demographic traps, i.e., areas where immigration exceeds emigration and inhibition of courtship dialogues and mating reduces reproduction. Examining multiple factors affecting population growth in concert is needed to understand and mitigate impacts of light pollution on wildlife.  
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  ISSN 1439-1791 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1978  
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Author Girard, M.B.; Kasumovic, M.M.; Elias, D.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of red coloration and song in peacock spider courtship: insights into complex signaling systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Research on animal signaling enhances our understanding of links between sensory processing, decision making, behavior, and evolution. Studies of sexually-selected signals may be particularly informative as mate choice provides access to decision patterns in the way that courtship leads to an easily observable behavioral output in choosers, i.e., mating. Male peacock spiders have some of the most elaborate and varied courtship displays known among animals. Particularly striking to human observers is the diversity of red, orange, and yellow ornaments that males exhibit across the genus. The primary objective of our research was to investigate how these visual ornaments interact with vibratory songs to affect female mating behavior of one species, Maratus volans. Accordingly, we conducted mating trials under a series of experimentally manipulated vibratory and lighting conditions. Contrary to expectation, chromatic characteristics of longer wavelength ornaments are not driving female mate choice decisions, despite their extensive presence on male fans. Instead, our results suggest that contrast is important to females. Additionally, we found that vibratory signals were not necessary and did not increase mating rates. Our study demonstrates the intricacies inherent in complex signaling systems.  
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  ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2027  
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