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Author Zhou, H.; Liu, L.; Lan, M.; Yang, B.; Wang, Z.
Title Assessing the Impact of Nightlight Gradients on Street Robbery and Burglary in Cincinnati of Ohio State, USA Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 17 Pages 1958
Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Crime
Abstract Previous research has recognized the importance of edges to crime. Various scholars have explored how one specific type of edges such as physical edges or social edges affect crime, but rarely investigated the importance of the composite edge effect. To address this gap, this study introduces nightlight data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (NPP-VIIRS) to measure composite edges. This study defines edges as nightlight gradients—the maximum change of nightlight from a pixel to its neighbors. Using nightlight gradients and other control variables at the tract level, this study applies negative binomial regression models to investigate the effects of edges on the street robbery rate and the burglary rate in Cincinnati. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of models show that nightlight gradients improve the fitness of models of street robbery and burglary. Also, nightlight gradients make a positive impact on the street robbery rate whilst a negative impact on the burglary rate, both of which are statistically significant under the alpha level of 0.05. The different impacts on these two types of crimes may be explained by the nature of crimes and the in-situ characteristics, including nightlight.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2828
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Conrad, J.; Shatwell, T.
Title Lunar illuminated fraction is a poor proxy for moonlight exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume 4 Issue Pages 318-319
Keywords Animals; Moonlight; Commentary
Abstract San-Jose et al. recently demonstrated that the colouration of barn owls impacts their hunting success under moonlit conditions, and therefore affects their reproductive success1. They found that near full-moon conditions, the youngest nestlings with white fathers were fed more and were likelier to survive than those with redder fathers. While the study is interesting, the percentage of the Moon that is illuminated (lunar illuminated fraction) is unfortunately a poor proxy for moonlight exposure. We suggest that lunar illluminated fraction should, in general, never be used in biological studies, as alternative variables such as horizontal illuminance better represent moonlight exposure, and therefore offer a greater chance of detecting the effects of moonlight. Here, we provide a brief explanation of how moonlight varies with season and time of night, and stress the need for greater collaboration between biologists and astronomers or physicists in such studies in the future.
Address Seenforschung, Helmholtz-Zentrum fur Umweltforschung-UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32015523 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2827
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Author Ritonja, J.; McIsaac, M.A.; Sanders, E.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Grundy, A.; Cordina-Duverger, E.; Spinelli, J.J.; Aronson, K.J.
Title Outdoor light at night at residences and breast cancer risk in Canada Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication European Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Epidemiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; Breast cancer; Case-control study; Circadian disruption; Light at night; Night work; Women's health
Abstract Experimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that light at night (LAN) exposure disrupts circadian rhythm, and this disruption may increase breast cancer risk. We investigated the potential association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia and Kingston, Ontario, Canada with incident breast cancer cases, and controls frequency matched by age in the same region. This analysis was restricted to 844 cases and 905 controls who provided lifetime residential histories. Using time-weighted average duration at each home 5-20 years prior to study entry, two measures of cumulative average outdoor LAN were calculated using two satellite data sources. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between outdoor LAN and breast cancer risk, considering interactions for menopausal status and night shift work. We found no association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer for either measure of LAN [OR comparing highest vs. lowest tertile (DNB) = 0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.27]. We also found no association when considering interactions for menopausal status and past/current night work status. These findings were robust to changes to years of residential data considered, residential mobility, and longer exposure windows. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting that outdoor LAN has a small effect or no effect on breast cancer risk.
Address Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. aronson@queensu.ca
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0393-2990 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32026169 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2826
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Author Bará, S.; Aubé, M.; Barentine, J.; Zamorano, J.
Title Magnitude to luminance conversions and visual brightness of the night sky Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 493 Issue 2 Pages 2429–2437
Keywords Skyglow; light pollution; atmospheric effects; techniques: photometric; methods: numerical; luminance
Abstract The visual brightness of the night sky is not a single-valued function of its brightness in other photometric bands, because the transformations between photometric systems depend on the spectral power distribution of the skyglow. We analyze the transformation between the night sky brightness in the Johnson-Cousins V band (mV, measured in magnitudes per square arcsecond, mpsas) and its visual luminance (L, in SI units cd m−2) for observers with photopic and scotopic adaptation, in terms of the spectral power distribution of the incident light. We calculate the zero-point luminances for a set of skyglow spectra recorded at different places in the world, including strongly light-polluted locations and sites with nearly pristine natural dark skies. The photopic skyglow luminance corresponding to mV = 0.00 mpsas is found to vary between 1.11–1.34 × 105 cd m−2 if mV is reported in the absolute (AB) magnitude scale, and between 1.18–1.43 × 105 cd m−2 if a Vega scale for mV is used instead. The photopic luminance for mV = 22.0 mpsas is correspondingly comprised between 176 and 213 μcd m−2 (AB), or 187 and 227 μcd m−2 (Vega). These constants tend to decrease for increasing correlated color temperatures (CCT). The photopic zero-point luminances are generally higher than the ones expected for blackbody radiation of comparable CCT. The scotopic-to-photopic luminance ratio (S/P) for our spectral dataset varies from 0.8 to 2.5. Under scotopic adaptation the dependence of the zero-point luminances with the CCT, and their values relative to blackbody radiation, are reversed with respect to photopic ones.
Address Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia; salva.bara(at)usc.gal
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2825
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Author Schulte-Römer, N.; Meier, J.; Söding, M.; Dannemann, E.
Title The LED Paradox: How Light Pollution Challenges Experts to Reconsider Sustainable Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 11 Issue 21 Pages 6160
Keywords Energy; Lighting; Society
Abstract In the 21st century, the notion of “sustainable lighting” is closely associated with LED technology. In the past ten years, municipalities and private light users worldwide have installed light-emitting diodes in urban spaces and public streets to save energy. Yet an increasing body of interdisciplinary research suggests that supposedly sustainable LED installations are in fact unsustainable, because they increase light pollution. Paradoxically, blue-rich cool-white LED lighting, which is the most energy-efficient, also appears to be the most ecologically unfriendly. Biologists, physicians and ecologists warn that blue-rich LED light disturbs the circadian day-and-night rhythm of living organisms, including humans, with potential negative health effects on individual species and whole ecosystems. Can the paradox be solved? This paper explores this question based on our transdisciplinary research project Light Pollution—A Global Discussion. It reveals how light pollution experts and lighting professionals see the challenges and potential of LED lighting from their different viewpoints. This expert feedback shows that “sustainable LED lighting” goes far beyond energy efficiency as it raises complex design issues that imply stakeholder negotiation. It also suggests that the LED paradox may be solved in context, but hardly in principle.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2824
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